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December 28, 2022
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August 7, 2017
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May 10, 1973
Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 LUiiI- r'"4"NTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ViAHINGTON, D.C. 20505 (b)(3) MEMORANDUM FOR: Brigadier General Brent Scowcroft Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs SUBJECT Foreign Reaction to the Watergate Developments 1. The official reaction abroad to these developments has, not surprisingly, been scarce. Most foreign leaders have declined to comment and are keeping their thoughts on it very much to themselves. They are undoubtedly following it carefully but withholding decisions until they are more confident of its implications. 2. In contrast to the guarded official reaction, media coverage, especially in Europe, has been extensive. The attached paper, prepared by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service, reviews this coverage. 3. No other distribution is being made of this paper. Attachment: As stated EDWARD H W. PROCTOR Deputy Director for Intelligence CON TI.AL Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435.na1ysis Group 10 May 1973 FOREIGN RADIO AND PRESS REACTION TO WATERGATE DEVELOPMENTS SUMMARY 1. While West European official spokesmen have been circumspect., the successive public disclosur-es of developments in the Watergate case have sparked increasingly heavy West European radio and press reportage and commnt, with British and French reaction the most extensive. The reaction has been generally critical of the President's handling of the affair, scathing in criticism of his White House aides, and apprehansive about the impact of the case on U.S. 'foreign policy. There have been widespread expressions of concern that the President's effectiveness in foreign affairs may have been impaired at least temporarily, as wall as some speculation that hL maybe tempted to take some precipitate foreign policy action as a means of recouping his prestige at home. Their unsparing criticism aside, a number of European. commentators have viewed the public disclosures as a vindication of the American political process and confirmation of the vitality of democratic institutions. 2. In the Far East, reportage and comment has been especially extensive from Japan, where newspapers broke with the normal practice of carrying foreign news on inside pages to give front-page prominence to developmerTs since 28 April- Admonitions against concentrating too much power in the hands of v7hie House aides and praise for the role played by the U.S. press predominated in Tokyo press editorials Both in harshly critical and in sympathetic editorials, there was a pervasive concern about possible repercussions in the international arena. 3. Saigon,_Seoul, and Taipei reaction has been notably �circumspect.. No mention of Watergate has been heard in any official South Vietnamese broadcast since at least mid-April, and press comment has been noted in only three Saigon papers. Seoul radio has� relegated most of its reports on the subject to the end of its. newscasts, and the official news agency has limited its coverage to reporting headlines in Seoul newspapers. Taipei radio has reported Watergate development's in .its newscasts, but.the.CRINA NEWS AGENCY has maintained a. blackout on the subject. A single available press commentary said we do not like to attach too much importance to this incident" but went on to deplore the "scandal."' Other Asian reaction has been 'scattered, including. - Delhi press comment focused on doubt as to the credibility of the Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 President's statements and on the potential weakening of his ability to govern. Two Thai papers editorially praised the President for refusing to covet up the issue. 5. Comment has been monitored only from Cairo in the Arab world. Egyptian papers argued that the methods used by the Administration in domestic matters extend to U.S. relations with other countries and comTrented that the Watergate disclosures do not promote confidence in U.S. promises, plans, or statements.. Limited Israeli. press comment saw the, President's opponents as unduly inflating an affair that would not have raised such a furor in Israel. 6. There has been little reportage or comment from Africa. Nigerian reaction was especially critical. Limited Latin American comment has been iticai from Panama, Chile, and Argentina, mixed from Colombia, and laudatory of the President from Brazil. 7. Washington's two partners in summit diplomacy have carefully stayed aloof from the Watergate situation. Peking is still ignoring it entirely. Moscow has never mentioned the President's 30 April address. Its first news scary since 29 April, when PRAVDA reported FBI Director Gray's resignation, was a report on 5 May that Richardson was to replace Kleindienst. By contrast, Most of Moscow's East .European allies have reported the Watergate developments promptly and commented on them, though not at the, authoritative level of press editorials, East Germany and Czechoslovakia have continued to air the harshest comment, While much more limited Polish and Romanian coverage has been notably sympathetic to the President's handling of the affair. Yugoslav reaction has been restrained and marked by a focus on the possible international implications--an aspect muted or ignored in the Soviet bloc comment, 8. Hanoi and Liberation Radio have carried an increasing daily flow of reports on Watergate since 24 April. Hanoi offered its first extensive analysis in a two-part radio commentary in Vietnamese on 7 and 8 April, judging. Watergate a 'great. political loss" for the President that threatens not only his prestige but also "his leadership of the nation." 9. Havana has continued to follow the Watergate developments closely and'tc comment in a caustic vein. It has not, however, developed a major anti-U.S propaganda campaign .around the subject.� One broadcast- on 10 May found the inVolvement of "Cuban counterrevolutionaries" not surprising in light of the President's alleged relations with such gronps and his "important role" as Vice President in planning the Ba of. Pigs invasion. Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 - 1 - N7-ST EUROPE West European spoLesmen have remained largely noncommittal at the official level. The media have-reported official reactions limited largely to public expressions of confidence in the United States or private assurances discounting a Watergate backlash on U.S. foreign policy. News reports and editorial comment, however, have increased as the. disclosures relating � to Watergate htve mounted, with the heaviest coverage monitored fro,rn the Britih. and French pres.s, BRITAIN Watergate has become the major, � continuing, story for the British radio, television,-and press. It was making front-page headlines in the London- press before the : President's 30 April speech and has since become. an -even�bigger- story. British correspondents in Washington have provided daily reports on each new revelation, including developments relating to the Ellsberg trial, the Vesco contribution, and the charges of CIA involvement. The subject. has figured prominently in. letters-to-the-editor columns. The press in general has conveyed feelings of shock and dismay and has expressed concern over the possible repercussions within the United States and throughout the world. The DAILY TELEGRAPH, a staunch supporter of the President during the Vietnam war, declared in. a 30 April editorial that the Presiclent's "behavior as this crisis mounted has been such as increasingly to undermine faith not only in his cy;:in competence but also, however hesitatingly, in his own integrity." Reacting several days latter to the President's neu guidelines on executive privilege, the paper cautioned that "no one should claim that any conversa- tion about Watergate is confidential." It added that the President "would be wise to forswear any right to executive privilege in any of the Watergate hearings." An editorial in the 6 May SUNDAY TELEGRAPH likewise criticized the President's use of executive privilege saying that "Chappaquiddick pales into insignificance in Comparison 'with Watergate." After deriding the President's television speech as "the pathetic patter of a third-rate car salesman," the editorial N:,iarned that reliance, on executive privilege would "further and perhaps fatally erode the fast-diminishing confidence of the American people in the com:petence and integrit of their President. That is too, high a price to pay for the safety from legal impeachment which an imposed silence may secure." Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 - 2 - Peregrine Worsthorne, the prominent rightwing journalist who has been highly laudatory of President Nixon in the past, also had harsh words for him. In a lengthy article, also on the �editorial page of the 6 May SUNDAY TELEGRAPH, Worsthorne wrote: "If it took a. pecularily insensitive and arrogant king to shock American opinion into doing something about the excessive Tower of the monarch, so it may be that there had to ha a pecularily insensitive and arrogant President to do the same for the modern powers of the White House." � What Watergate displays so eloquently, Worsthorn continued, is the seamy side of power, its squalor and poverty of spirit, its moral corruption and sheer ugliness." The London TIMES, in a 2 May editorial on the President's speech, wrote that Watergate "is indeed a bad business and a dirty business, but it is not unique. It is not unique, but it is vary dangerous." Sharply attacking the President's White house � associates, the editorial said: "These- young � men with their Pepsodent smiles and their football ethics--their 'name of the game is winning' beliefs--were not fit people to be around the White Nouse, not because they. wicked men, but because they were only half men. They are not a species only found in the ' United States--there are plenty in London�but � they are totally � unsuited to politics and are usually lacking in judgment, humor or compassion- � For a great political party to. allow ,such man to be so near the top is a' sign, oddly enough, that the Morality. of old Joe Kennedy has prew41ed.". The .TIMES- went on to su8qest- that the President felt more secure with second-rate ;subordinates "partly, one would suppose, because the second-rate offer in. the. short term an unqualified loyalty that better men do not give." It is characteristic of "an insecure or self-centered man," the TIMES added, "to demand such .loyalty, and characteristic of such loyalty to betray the master's true interests in support of his supposed wishes. It is.the.loyalty of the men who murdered Becket." An article in the 6 May SUNDAY OBSERVER, by Michael Davia,� also -imuguad the competence o..f the President's advisers.. Watergate, .he wrote, "shows how the American system throws amateurs up into positions Of power." Davie went on to say that Watergate had � exposP.d.a major flaw in the American political system�the absence of any "rapid way of removing, without a massive convulsion, a President who has lost the confidence of the people. This theme has been reiterated in most: of the British papers. The British Papers all expressed concern over the possible impact of the case on U.S. foreign policy. The 2 May GUARDIAN, in an editorial entitled The. Stench. of. Waterzata," wrote "Thi-s is not the most auspicious time to pursue Dr. Kissinger's fruitful Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 - 3 - suggestion for a new Atlantic charter. Mr. Nixon would be wise to let the dust settle a bit, assuming that he believes it will eventually settle. This is a sad consequence of Watergate: 1.1� Nixon's policies have had much success, notably with China and Russia, but a pause is now inevitable." The FINANCIAL TIMES declared on 2 May that the ability of the Nixon Administration. to take a firm and consistent line an international issues inevitably be weakened until the Watergate affair is satisfactorily wound up." Au article by Gordon Brook-Shepherd in the. 6 May SUNDAY TELEGRAPH tynified Tritish comment on Fatergatais impact on foreign policy: "Vihat it amounts to for us is this: In America they are reviving the old jibe about Mir. Nixon not being the sort of man you would buy a secondhand car from, but we. in. West Europe may soon be buying something far more important than that from him--our life insurance policy in the literal meaning of those words. The President cannot complain if now, more than ever:before,.we � resist any attempts of his to draw up that policy too quickly ar- insert too much fine print at the bottom." The article went on to say that, what will worry the Kremlin most is "the uncertainty, not only about Nixon's own future, bu't about the future of his policymaking style and methods." The communist HORNING STAR published material on Watergate almost daily and, like the major papers, mostly in front-page stories. General Hales appointment produced a banner headline entitled "Bombing General Moves Into White House.." The NORNI1:;G STAR also seized upon Watergate as an opportunity to demand Ambassador Annenberg's recall on grounds that he had given too much financial support to the President and to "a system which is rotten to the core." Bernard Levin .in the 8 May TINES came to the President's defense and reproved British 'critics for displaying "gleeful hysteria!'. over Watergate. Levin praised the President's achievements in foreign and domestic policy as greatly overshadowing anything he might be criticized Tor in the Watergate affair. Levin's article drew a response from Labor .HP Michael Foot, who suggested in a letter to the editor in the next day's TIMES that Levin's credentials as a political analyst were suspect and that his efforts to assist "a United States President in trouble" would probably add � considerably .to the latter's anxieties. FRANCE Watergate emerged as a major issue in the French press following President Nixon's 30 April speech, with the main emphasis placed on the view that the. President had lost credibility in the ayes of the American public.. LE NONDE-was . particularly critical of what it described as the President's role Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 in "the amateurism, incompetence, and ineptitude Which have turned a sordid story of seedy espionage into an 'affair' which is shaking the pillars of justice." On 2 May the paper commented that whether one believed the President or not,.� "he will have to confess to a series of errors of judgment in order to exculpate himself." Correspondent Jacques Amalric asserted in the 8 May LE MONDE that the President appeared to be "less concerned with justice and truth" than with � "using all his powers to further limit the inquiry." An editorial in the 6-7 May issue of the same paper commented that the President had shown in his White House appointments ."mental blindness which tomorrow may be called criminal weakness, and this will weigh heavily on what remains of his future as President." LE FIGARO was somewhat less harsh in its treatment of the President. In the only monitored direct French press reference to the international impact of Watergate, a 7 May commentary by correspondent Leo Sauvage stressed the tremendous political. difficulties confronting the President and observed that he will likely be handicapped in his foreign.aolicy by "the ball. and chain tied to his ankle marked 'Watergate.'" On the 7th L'AURORE summed up .the disclosures on Watergate with � the observation that the ."different involved in the affair were .selfishly trying to extricate themclveS: !Hoping� to protect themselves and to lessen their responsibility, some. ... of them are even. trying to allege that President Nixon is likely to be directly responsible." Exploring the implications.. of the disclosures, LE FIGARO on the 8th questioned whether events would "inexorably lead to the implementation of special impeachment procedures.," It predicted an "ebb" in U.S. public opinion and declared that the very people most responsive to the campaign on the newspapers can tomorrow Or �after suddenly feel angry at edam and blame the critics for having jeoardized national unity" The communist L'EUMANITE restricted itself mainly to reportage on the President's speech:-..-which correspondent Claude Mores described on 2 May as "unconvincing",--and General Tiaig's appointment, The paper also emphasized the various U,S. opinion polls recordin3 the President's decline in public favor. And it scoffed at other newspapers for "daring to praise U.S. democracy under the pretext that it Has not been possible to smother the Watergate case," Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 - 5 - WEST GERMANY Prior to the President's 30 April address, coverage of Watergate in West German media . � was confined largely to brief factual reports. In an excePtion, an article by publisher Rudolph Augstein, of Hamburg's weekly newsmagazine HER SPIEGEL, said that President Nixon "will Probably go down in his country's history not only as the audacious China politician but also as the. Watergate President, whose personal regime produced the most shameful consequences of cynical use of power." The lesr.. German press beil,aa to conocnt2te on Waterczate develop- m.ents oft. 2 May. . The gaTleral thr.ust.of coment was typified by Hamburg's DIE UELT,. which declared on 2 May. that "no matter How you look at this sensational case, Nixon's position has been wakened." The Cologne radio orefacd its 7 May press review with the statement: 'After the new escalation of the Watergate scandal, commentators are beginning to ask themselves whether the position. of President Nixon himself is now threatened." The commentary went on to assert - that the newly issued guidelines on executive privilege were , widely regarded as an attempt to silence White House aides and as an admission of Presidential weakness" STUTTGARTER ZEITUNG, noting the possibility of international. repercussions, said in an editorial on the 7th: "Twilight has been cast not only on the parson of Nixon but OR the President's office as well- Viewed from this angle, WatergLin takes on frightening dimensions for the entire Western World, For Richard Nixon is not some unimportant government chief but the most powerful man of the Western alliance, holding an office that seemed to take good care of the Western world's central values." The editorial added: "It is to be hoped that the Watergate affair will be cleared up completely even if this should turn out to be most painful for the present holder of the office," Oberndorf's SCHURZWAE-.LDER BOTH also speculated on the. possible international fallout', "What. .will happen when, a few weeks � from now, Nixon receives Sovj:et party. chief Brezhnev. for � negotiations of the greatest importance for tbe 170 and Europa? And what would happen If Nixon on that occasion should. be tempted to' seel< an advantageous course of the talks only to cause his involvement in a domestic scandal to be forgotten?" Coustmace's SUEDKURIER struck a positive note in observing that . "U.S. democracy. and its press remained fully able to function" during the furor over Watergate. It continued: � "Things that Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 - 6 - are routine in communist and other dictatorships make head- lines in a living democracy. Independent critical journalists are not afraid to expose bad things even if the highest offices and persons are involved." ITALY. The Italian press has. covered the Watergate developments closely, making � frequent use of U.S. press comment and reports of American public reaction. Milan's CORRTERE DELLA�SERA has been running almost daily dispatches .from its New York correspondent reporting the general skepticism in the United States about the President's avowed "strategy of making a "cle ,eep" of t1la Watatcl ra6, Like v,Iny ether Italian papers, the Milan daily in. its 4 May issue stressed the possible impact on the President's ability to govern "with the necessary authority and affec,tiveness" if the crisis is not resolved. In a similar vein, Turin's Lk sTAITA on 5 and 6 May expressed. hope that the affair--said to have "irreparably- damaged the. Presidency"--will restore "honesty and discipline' to U.S. politics. The paper was also hopeful that General Uaig's appoint- ment to the White_ House staff would lead to a major government reshuffle. Discussing the international implications, LA STAMPA warned. on 6 May that the Watergate case was "encouraging isolationism and protectionism!' in the. 'United States had already. incurred the hostility of Congress; and would complicate U.S. forein relations� A. The. communist L'UNITA's coverage of Watergate since the end of April has consisted mainly of reports by its Washington correspondents on repercussions of the continuing disclosures. - A report on the President's Speech in the a May issue. called it an attempt to placate the public and restore the credibility, . of the Presidency and the Administration. OTHER COUNTRIES , Austrian media have provided extensive reportage�of.the Watergate developments but little comment. The President has been mildly criticized for having responded to the crisis belatedly and only after massive public pressure. While the noncounist press has generally given tffta President, as DIE PaESSE put it, the benefit of the. doubt" about his pesonal involvement in the affair, the communist VOLKSSTI= seized on the President's new guidelines on executive 'privilege as "a clear admission, of guilt." The. 26 koril papers quoted the leaders of the two major Austrian political parties as saying the affair "has harmed U.S. inter- national prestige." An article in DIE PRESSE on 9 May stressed Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 �7 � the urgency of a quick settlement of the affair the President's forthcoming talks with Brezhnev restraint on the part of the Democrats. Obsery only Nixon but America and its institutions are being put to a hard test," the paper declared: of revenge for the election defeat are suicidal circumstances." in view of and counseled ing that "not currently "Any feelings under these In Switzerland, the NEUE ZUERCHER ZETTUNG on 7 May was critical of the new White House guidelines on eKecutive privilege on rouns the the. v:onld only nottif3h suspicious that the Preside.tat had something to hide. In the next day's issue the paper took up the. question of Moscow's reaction, saying the Soviet Union had chosen to remain silent .because of the importance it attahed to Kissinger's Moscow. visit and adding- . that the Kremlin probably regretted the. Watergate crisis, partly because it had been portraying the. President as "a not altogether bad strong man of America." The Swedish and Finnish radios tarried brief news reports on the President's television address and the resignations of the top White House aides. Helsinki:radii) also reported the security measures undertaken by FBI agents in the White House following the resignations of Ehrlichman and Haldeman. Neither radio, in monitored brdadtasts, had commented directly. In. Denmark and the retherlan, the co=unist press ridiculed the Presidents speech in particularly vitriolic tems, charging that it had failed to resolve the grbwing domestic political crisis. ASIA AND THE FAR EAST JAPAN The Watergate affair became the top foreign news � topic in japan on. 28 April when Patrick Gray resigned as acting head of the FBI. Public iced official reaction, however, has been limited to a brief 1 1-Jay remark by chief. Cabinet� Secretary Susumu Nikaido who said that he did not think Watergate.. would. affect Triiza Ifinistar Tanaka 's plan.s to visit Washington this s.:1.111rner. Foreisa news is usually published on the. inside pages of the. press, but on 28 April Asa&I, ymalaI, and SAN= gave front-page play to dispatches from their correspondents on Gray's resignation, and TOKYO SHIMBUN and NIHON KEIZAI--the 'latter primarily a journal of economic news�reported the resinatIon on page two. .S-Plecf-4va front-page. Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 � 8 - coverage continued with ASAHI and YOMIRI reports on General Haig's White House appointment; ASHAI, YONIURI, MAINICHI, TOKYO SHIMBUN, SANKEI; and NIHON KEIZAI coverage of the President's remarks on testimony by White House officials; and various reports in the papers of John Dean's accusations, disclosures by TIME magazine, and the proposal for a special Watergate prosecutor. Admonitions against concentrating power in the hands of.. "politically inexperienced". aides and praise for the role played. by the U.S. press predominated in Tokyo newspaper editorials on the An aditoial in. the 2 Nay ASHAI termed Watergate a scackdal" and argued that President Ni7Kon 'waited too long" to deny White House involvement. Noting that the President - had achieved great diplomatic successes in the past, the �editorial� asserted that it "ill not be easy for him to restore the credibility and. prestige that have been drastically damaged both at hone and abroad." ASHAI lauded U.S. newsmen for overcdminc, "strong White House pressure" and continuing their "persistent probing" of the Watergate affair. Asserting that "all the � details of this unprecedented, dismal Scandal have not been uncovered," an editorial in the English-language DAILY YOM-MIon 2 May concluded that the Watergate affair cannot diminish the. Nixon Administration's achievements in international �affairs but that "the stain on the moral integrity of the Administration- may take a long time to fade." more Positive view Was expressed in a 2 lay editorial in the English-language JAPAP. T=S, which claimed that the President, by going directly to the .people in his 30 April speech and � emphasizing that he had no prior knowledge of the bugging attempt or of the subsequent moves to cover up the tatter, had .displayed the same. "great courage" ha had shown in�1952�"whet he was . accuseJ, as the vice presidential candidate, of having a plush, secret campaign ,fund." Japanese interest in the -Watergate. case is piyyrcularly keen., the editorial declared,. because "the undoia of. the American President's influence and prestige in these critical times 'would be most unfortunate not. only for the Unite0. States b,.1t also for the world at large." The editorial concluded that 'undoubtedly., the American people will accept President Nixon's statement of his noninvolvement, for they do prefer too,:ep the offtce of the president sacrosanct and beyond scandal." TOKYO SHIMBUN the same day editorialized that Watergate might provide Congress "with a favorable opportunity to apply the. brakes to an excessive. concentration of power in the White House," Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 The Japan Communist Party organ AKAHATA charged on 2 May that Watergate developments had exposed the "Nixon regime as willing to do anything to. achieve its. objectives." The President, characterized as "stubborn and crafty," was charged with attempting to "evade criticism and the attacks against him by sacrificing his aides." AKAHATA on 6 May called the White House a "headquarters for'professional spies" and charged that "the U.S. political world is just like a mafia-controlled gangsterdom." On the 3th,.AKAHATA said continuing disclosures of Watergate misconduct had revealed that even a former deputy director of the CIA was "entangled in the Nixon Administration's corrupting spyinL., operations. It is inevitable, ,threfore, that Tfi:::Dn's responsibility as President will he further probad." SOUTH VIETNAM South Vietnamese official. broadcast media have avoided any reference to the Watergate case since at least two weeks prior to the President's. 30 April address. The VIETNAM PRESS �bulletin, disseminated by the RVN ministry of information, has carried only sporadic foreign news agency reports on Watergate developments. From 30 April to - 9 May, VIETNAM PRESS in English carried four press reports attributed to foreign news agencies,' but the Vietnamese-language edition carried only one such report'--a brief. UPI summary of the President's 30 April speech�on 2 May. Available comment in the local Saigon press has' been confined to three papers, two of them opposed to the Thieu government. The opposition DIEN TIN on 3 May, for example, argued that the Watergate case had become a "notorious scandal unprecedented in U.S. election history." And DAN SONG, published by the dissident An Quang Buddhist faction, related the. Watergate case to the local South Vietnamese political scene: "In Vietnam police checks on household members have been conducted daily, frightening elderly parents whose loved ones have reached draft age," but nothing has come to light as it did with Watergate. The progovernment CHENH LUAN asserted on 9 Eay that even if the affair does not result in the President's resignation, he will still be in a "weak position.," since it will be difficult for the Republican Party to hold its own in next year's congressional elections. ,CHIN LUAN speculated that this situation might encourage the communists "to try to embark once again on a military adventure." Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 -10 - SOUTH KOREA Monitored Seoul radio coverage has been limited to Western news agency dispatches and cabled reports by the. Washington-based correspondents of Seoul newspapers. Apart from the Preident's- 30 April address,. Watergate developments have generally been relegated to the end of newscasts .� Brief, factual radio re-Ports have covered. all major aspects of the situation�including speculation about imneachment possibilities, alleged CIA involvement, and a possible tie-in with the Pentagon papers case.. White House denials of involvement and .reports .that President Nixon is Taking great efforts CO geL to the bottom of the affair have - also been reported. The official news agency, HAPTONG, however, has avoided any detailed reportage on-the case, carrying only headlines and editorial titles from SeoulYs morning and afternoon newspapers. Representative editorial titles quoted in HAPIONG's 2 May press review were "Nixon and Watergate Scandal" appearing in TONGA ILBO and "America's Good Political Conscience, A Comment on Watergate," published in CHUNCANG 31E6. OTHER COUNTRIES � Delhi radio has broaccast reviews of several Indian nespaper,commentaries on the subject� most of them critical of the. President's. handling .of the situation. The INDIAN EXPRESS, the NATIONAL. REULD, the STLTESAN..� the TRIBUNE, the HINDUSTAN:TILES, aiv:Lthe PATRIOT focused en reportt. .of doubt as to the credibility of the Presidents statements, on the potential weakening of. the -.President's ability to govern anri exercise moral authority,. and on the implications for the . viability of the U.S. election system. A 4 May INDIAN EXPRESS' editorial maintained that the President "apparently had no choice but to make the kind of .statcment he did, obviously a bid to spivage his image." The NATIONAL REaALD said it would "L,E. difficult for him to prove that he was thnt in the dark throuhoul-." Thai newspapers have editorially praised- the President for assuming respousibility�and for refusing to cever nT) an issue has "sullied the- political his soy Of America." (:1,ILY NEWS, 2 nay) and has exposed "dirty politics" in a eeuatry with a :traditionally democratic form of government (THAI .RNIH, 3 Ilay). Liore critical comentaries appeared in SIS on 4 and 5 Ilay: The pacer accusrl � the President at "grasping at straws to save himself" when he said . the Watergate affair showed that the American political system was � capable of bringing hidden facts to light through normal processes. � � 1;alaysia1s STP,AITS TINES on 2 May carried an editorial expressing confidence the President will extricate himsell!, his government, Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 -11- and his party from the unholy mess" if .he returns "to the. � traditional method Of putting executive responsibility in the hands of ministers, not blue-eyed personal counselors without political or public experience.' The only monitored Indonesian reaction was a �2 May Jakarta radio commentary uhich speculated that the President would � respond to the setback by initiating a new �move on the inter- national scene. Mutual and balanced. :force reduction in Europe was seen as a possible arena for ,uch a mov,, While Taipei radio has factually reported. Watergate developments, the CHIN NEWS AGENCY has transmitted no reports on the subject. The only available press comment, a UNITED DAILY NEWS editorial on 2 May, said that. "as an ally of the United States, we do not like to attach too much importance to this incident." Nevertheless, it went on to say that "the Watergate scandal has more or less exposed the 'dark side of American democracy' and suggested that the affair may have undercut the effectiveness of U.S. leadership "in opposing communist. totalitarianism." MIDDLE EAST AR/23 COUNTRIES Onl-j Cairo has originated oemment on. .the Watergate developments, With Egyptian broadcasts� summarizing articles- from the Cairo press. While of all Arab radios Cairo has carried the fullest, most regular news coverage,. its accounts nevertheless have been brief Eag1dad�radio has. � � given the developments the least attention. It reported the resignation of the President's top aides on 30 'April', then ignored the situation until $ May.. Cairo's AL-AKTiBla observed on 6 ilay that "th2se scandal's are a lesson that does not promote. confidence in the promises end plans of the U.S. Government or r the statements-of U.S. officialq. AL-AKHBAR declared that if a nation's. basic system is founded on. injustice, .racial persecution, and. armc?.d. .a:;cgression, Epad if this system: permits the state to deny the. rights .of other peoples, as the United States: denies the Palestinians' rights, than individuals � in that state "will find nothing criminal in committing various types of violations." ,The Same paper commented on 7 Hay� that although the U.S. "scandalsP are basically domestic, they axe in fact part of "the methods of deceit, cheating', plotting, and agression that the Nixon Administration has resorted .to" as official policy since its first days in offir-,... -AL-JUHEIVRIYAH - said on 6 May that the revelations in the Watergate affair can Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 - 12 - serve as a guideline for other states in determining their relations with Washington, because it is .unlikely that a person who plots against his fallow citizens would not plot against others as well, ISRAEL Israeli media have promptly reported developments since 28 April, hut other than press articles - briefly noted by Jerusalem radio on 2 May, there has been no col=ent.. The radio's review of the press said that �.both HAMODIA' and. YEDI'OT HADASHDT balieVr-d the President's opponents were uxidT.Y ihflat:'!...71 the Watrg.e.bgging and_ h5d to 3uch a furor over 4 similar situation in Israel. YEDI'OT AHARONOT said all countries, including Israel, could learn a. lesson from the case, particularly from the fact that President Nixon took responsibility even though he was not personally involved and dismissed his top advisers merely - because they were under suspicion.: There are people in Israel, too, who are "responsible for omissions," the paper added but they are never dismissed. GREECE, TURKEY,. . Athens and Teheran radios have giVen. the. � . IRAN, CYPRUS Watergate case scattered attention in news broadcasts, while the .Turkish press and � � Ankara radio have .provided regular news coverage of developments. since 30 April, None of the radios has carried original comment, e.N.d there is no r-rv;.LLI.e:Y1e press reaction from Iran. The Istanbul� CU3== on -2 Nay carried a lengthy- raoort on �tha case and � on reaction to it, including a-comment by the London SUNDAY TINES' Henry Brandon that 'for the first time in 23 years I sense a fear that the government may be rotten to the core." Comment in some Athens papers has viewed the case against the � background of the political situation in Greece and the issue Of � press freedom there. Observing that "domestic political - eep ooa: Y is a Ti_Sus-a of po,,Ter, TO VE:A remarked on 2 Y47 that it realted fror;., the "gradual transfer of political power (and. the rule of the people)" to "forces outside the constitution who have the means and power to act without controls." The paper condered the public outcry for .a cleanup a healthy sign "Which only a dewocracy can guarantee,". whereas "authoritative regimes" can cover up what they wish, 'nth the recent confiscation of the Athens paper I VRADY111 possibly in mind, TO VIHA co-wanted on 4 May that the dress should be free not just to say what. the authorities would like but also what they do not like.. AK:201'0.1:E3 observed on. 3 May that the case had taken on such proportions as to endanger, "if not fir, Nixon's position, � at least Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 -13 - his authority and effectiveness as President." The paper � saw the affair as coming at a bad time for the United States, with relations with Europe still "unregulated," the war in Indochina continuing, Middle East news not reassuring, and "continuing aoom" on Wall Street. On the 4th AKEWPOLIS asked how the United. States could be. politically decisive and. - assert itself at home and abroad under such conditions. It urged Connally, Vice President Agnew, and "others Who have not been tainted" to support the Presidnt-and.brIng a quick end to the affair, Cypriot media, both Creek ;:ind Tura, have gLvn almost daily attention to developments in factual news reportage, but the only available com:Tlent has come from KHARAVYI, the organ of the Cyprus cormunist party, and from the apposition paper I CNMI- KHLRAVYI on the 8th, speculating on the possibility of impeachment of the President, claimed that Mr. Nixon was already accountable to the public for "this hideous electronic. exercise in brute. force." Militating against impeachment,. � according .to the paper, was the fact that many Republicans and Democrats � faced the possibility of an Agnew in the Presidency" as "tha 'ulti7,1P-e evil,' greater than the continuation. of Nixon in the White House," The oppoSition.I GNall saw the Watergate case as a victory for democracy and the press and, relating it to the Cypri:s situation, asked if the Opposition and its press enjoyed the slightest freedom to judge and criticize the President. A AFRICA NORTH AFRICA Tripoli radio has carried aIMost daily reports � on Watergate developments with no orip:ina:1 comnient, although it did report the 7 May Cairo AL-AKEBE), contary. There was virtually no monitored reportae frol Maghreb broadcasts. . The North African press has pUbilitd generally short, factual reports, usually citing.U.S. rapers and Western news agencies. The only availz.lble direct conrent came on 6 May. in the Casablanca Li ATIN, which assessed the Presidellt's speech as "weak'bates "bringing him credit., " Morocco's L'OPLNION on I May prefaced a REUTER article on the White Rouse resignatios,with its own Observation that the Watergate 'political - scandal" was still having.rapercussions that were of interest to . both domestic and international public opinion. An article in- the. Algiers EL MUJIII.EID on 4 May on time President's state of the world message noted in passing that the Nixon Administration "has been badly shaken." by. the Watergate affair. Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 SUB-SARN AFRICA nonitored Sub-Saharan African coverage has been limited in volume and generally . relegated to the end of newscasts, but critical in tone. Comment is available only from Nigerian and Ghanaian media.' In a talk broadcast over Lagos radio on 2 and 4 Nay, .President. Nixon was judged to be "at. the center of the whole Watergate mess," which was viewed as "just one of the usual occurrences of the American way of life" and as puncturing "the illusion of America as God's own country and the bastion of damocratic - � ideals." A Lagos 4 May DAILY EXPRESS editorial said.the effects of Watergate were "sufficient to senI sN-L.en packing even though he had othei:wie enjoyed a enduring career," Ghana's DAILY GRAPHIC', published�in Accra, asserted in a 2 nay editorial that even the resignations of President Nixon's advisers "Can do little to erase the 2eat reverses. which the affair imposes on the future of free elections everywhere in the world." LATIN AMFRICA Latin American radios have broadcast considerable factual news. coverage of Watergate developments, Comment is available so far from Panama radio and television and from newspapers in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Colop,bia. Panama 'City Televisora National decribed th;, s.fair as "unquestionably sordid," and the government station Radio Libertad said the President demonstrated a "slippery technique when he attempted to "skim over the. Watergate scandal," An editorial in the Chilean ULTIMA HORA viewed Watergate as a revelation of the "total decadence of the Lilierican system" and an example of why the President's image has "deteriorated' in the eyes of the American people, The Buenos Aires' LA PRENSA on 3 publis11 1a lo-c dispatch .rom 11:1 orres-Dondnt in New York consisting orinas fly of bakround Daterial and sue tins from the President's .critics in the Unit:ed. States. LA PRENSA comented that the "scandal" reached "a new dimension of notoriety when the President on 30 Aesil accepted "the rspon....;ibilitylor the espionage." Bogota's EJ, TI=O on 4 May commented sarcastically on what it called the President's "gift _for filling his' eyes with tears in public" and on the "insolence" of his Administration in the past rear months, But more favorable colment appeared the next day in the Colombian. EL SICLO, which said the President clearly had nothing to do with Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 - 15 - Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 Watergate because it would have been "completely foreign" to his nature. In a similar vein, an editorial in Rio de Janeiro's 0 GL030 on 4 May said Watergate had placed the 'President's personal position in jeopardy but his dignified behavior had enhanced his personal stature and ennobled the democratic system. COYMUNIST COUNTRIES THE USSR Having reported the 'President's 17 April statement about "major developments" in the case on the 19th and than ignored Watergate until the 28th, when TAGS tersely reoorted rBI f.)rector Gray's resignation and the apnointm,-nt of auckeishaus to replace him, Moscow again fell silent until 5 May. A single-sentence dispatch on Richardson's replacing Kleindienst appeared in central newspapers that day and the next, with no indicatiorithat the shift related to Watergate. Soviet media have yet to mention the resignations of any of the White House staff aides or the President's 30 April address. The sole commentary on Watergate to appear in any monitored Soviet media came at about.the,same.tima PRAVDk reported the - President's 17 April statement. A commentary in the -Quechua dialect, in a radio service tailored for Indian audiences in Bolivia and Peru, used the-Watergate case to press the basic, simplistic theme of the Quechua broadcasts�that the "imperialist" system is decadent and 7.orruptz No mention of the case has been. heard in any other Moscow broadcast to any audience-. THE EAST EUROPEAN BLOC Most East European media, having given Watergate developments low-level coverage from the outset, have stepped up their comment since the events of 30 April. There is no comment to date, however, at. the authoritative level of a press editorial. Czechoslovak and, particularly, East German media have continued to provide' the most extensive reportorial coverage and the �harshast. comment. Several East German commentaries were especially -critical of the President's personal role,. A 4 May commentary in DER MORGEN found the President's assertion of innocence in the Watergate.affair- "incrediblej and a BERLINER 4EITUNG article termed those who have resigned in connection with the affair "Tricky Dick's scapegoats." By contrast-, Romanian and Polish coverage, parked by very limited . comment, has bean notable for a generally sympathetic portrayal of Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 - the President's handling of the affair. The Polish Government paper ZYCIE WARSZAWY on 3 May, for example, emphasized that Watergate was a crisis for the. U.S. political structure but not for the President personally, since he was "emerging from these straits unscathed." The Romanian press on 2 May carried an. AGERPRES dispatch which lad off by saying the President had given assurances that "justice'will be pursued fully and imoartially in the Watergate affair, no matter who is involved." CzeChosiovak, East German, and to a lesser extent Hungarian�and Polish media have pictured the Watergate case as exemplifying practices encluHe to the capitalist system and have played do7m its possible lc--rmagz, ran ficatlocs either for the ZAminiGilratioa � or for the U.S. political system. While East European.comment-as- a v7hole has avoided broaching the question of how Watergate might affect the United. States international position, a Bulgarian press article on the President's state of the world massage did cite U.S,. sources for an assertion that the White_ House- hopes for some positive achievements in foreign policy to cover up 'all the dirt" surrounding Watergate. By and lage,. however, Bulgaria's coverage has been sparse and muted, typically following the Soviet lead. YUGOSLAVIA Limited coverage in YugoSlav,media has been restrained and somewhat more serious and analytical in tone than that of Moscow's 'Fast European allies. a.lgrada. r.:1io said the PreF,dde1:t. would now try to convince domestic critics not to capitalize on the Watergate developments in order to. minimize their impact in coming talks with Brezhnev. and West .European leaders and in international forums. A commentary on the results of Kissinger's recent trip to Moscow suggested that the failure to announce a definite date for Brezhnev's U.S. visit may have been related to Watergate. THE VIETNAMESE tWIMNISTS Vietnamese commun-Tst media weta slow 5n rcact disclocures in the Watargat(-1 c..53e, with the firs .tr:epcift coming in a Hanoi radio broadcast on 24 .1,nril--a full week after the President's stateMent of the 17th. Hanoi's initial sileacemay have been related to - rie-vioents in TiRV-U.S. relations or may 1.1,,Ive merely- reflected caution in evaluating the significance of the case. Hanoi's pubJ.:Lc:Lty lies been confined to routine-level radio and press accounts,� with no authnritative press coment. In keeping with the- pattern since the signing of the peace agreement, Hanoi's treatment of the President has been devoid of the kind of persOnal invedtive that had been a staple of DRY comment during the war years. Reports on Watergate have been critical of the President; but derogatory references have generally been attributed to the Western 'press. Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 Since the �24th there has been an increasing daily flow of. Hanoi. and Liberation Radio attention to Watergate. Typifying_ Hanoi's relative circumspection, however, Hanoi's first lengthy report, broadcast in Vietnamese on the 28th, .cited Western news agencies for the allegations that "Nixon has become � furious as his role in the Watergate case is being tracked down" and that "the activities of the:White House are virtually paralyzed." Hand-its reports on the President's 30 April speech, included a. 3 May broadcast which claimed he had "admitted part of tha guilt" and cited U.S. sources for speculation that the President had participated in a coverup and might resign. A Liberation P.71( comae: tary on 3 1:17 claled that the "entire ruling apparatus" of the United Stat2.3 vJas involv3d in efforts to "rig" the election.. The broadcast also cited OP for a report that South Vietnamese President Thieu is worried about the possibility that the Watergate affair may adversely affect Smith -Vietnam. A two-part radio commentary in Vietnamese on 7 and 8 May offered Hanoi' a first eaten.oive analysis of the affair.- � , Reviewing events over the past year, tue commentary judged Watergate to be a "great political Loss" for the. President and his. Administration. which "not only threatens the President's prestige but also threatens his leadership of the nation." ALBANIA, An article la the Albanian party's zoll I POPULLIT ff_MH KCP.EA on 8 :nay and limited domes radio comment since the 4th, while belated, has b,,,an typically . vituperative. The basic themes were that Watergate is one of many symptoms of the corruption of the American political system and that the President has been "maneuvering" to cover up the facts - and forestall further revelations. Pyongyang's reaction was also vituperative, though it .too was belated and low in volume. A limited amount of press and radio comTen',7. since 3 Hay has focud critically on the President's handling of the case and concluded that Watergate attests to the "rottenness" of American society and of the U.S. leadership. CUBA Havana has continued to reDort e:etco.sivaly on the Watergate developments and has .sustained the caustic tone of its comment. Commenting on the President's 30 April speech, the domestic radio and PRENSA LATINA emphasized that the affair had by no means reached its culmination and that further evidence linking the-. President himself to the affair would likely emerge. A Havana Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 1 L./ Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435 broadcast to ,.he Americas on 10 May focused the "Cuban counterrevolutionaries" involved. It found their participation not surprising in light of the President's "long-standing close relations" with such groups and his "important role in planning the mercenary invasion of Playa Giron when he was Vice President." Havana has not developed a major propaganda campaign around. Watergate, however. Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01482435