Volume 66, No. 1 (March 2022)

An Allied Perspective on Cyber: Shape or Deter? Managing Cyber-Espionage Threats to National Security Interests

By Lester Godefrey

A UK government analyst argues that cyber espionage is the natural evolution of intelligence-gathering statecraft in the 21st century. He explores whether deterrence by denial or punishment is likely to be successful in significantly reducing or preventing cyber espionage against national security interests. Using open-source materials for his case study, he considers whether US efforts to counter cyber espionage by China have achieved deterrence or reduced activity.