Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



A former British colony, Cyprus became independent in 1960 following years of resistance to British rule. Tensions between the Greek Cypriot majority and Turkish Cypriot minority communities continue. In February 2014, after a hiatus of nearly two years, the leaders of the two communities resumed formal discussions under UN auspices aimed at reuniting the divided island.



total: 9,251 sq km

land: 9,241 sq km

water: 10 sq km


temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters

Natural resources

copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment

People and Society


1,295,102 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Greek 98.8%, other 1% (includes Maronite, Armenian, Turkish-Cypriot), unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)


Greek (official) 80.9%, Turkish (official) 0.2%, English 4.1%, Romanian 2.9%, Russian 2.5%, Bulgarian 2.2%, Arabic 1.2%, Filipino 1.1%, other 4.3%, unspecified 0.6%; note - data represent only the Republic of Cyprus (2011 est.)


Orthodox Christian 89.1%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Protestant/Anglican 2%, Muslim 1.8%, Buddhist 1%, other (includes Maronite, Armenian Church, Hindu) 1.4%, unknown 1.1%, none/atheist 0.6% (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

1.06% (2022 est.)


Government type

Republic of Cyprus - presidential republic; self-declared "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC) - parliamentary republic with enhanced presidency


name: Nicosia (Lefkosia/Lefkosa)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Nikos ANASTASIADIS (since 28 February 2013); the president is both chief of state and head of government; note - vice presidency reserved for a Turkish Cypriot, but vacant since 1974 because Turkish Cypriots do not participate in the Republic of Cyprus Government

head of government: President Nikos ANASTASIADIS (since 28 February 2013)

Legislative branch

description: area under government control: unicameral House of Representatives or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats; 56 assigned to Greek Cypriots, 24 to Turkish Cypriots, but only those assigned to Greek Cypriots are filled; members directly elected by both proportional representation and preferential vote; members serve 5-year terms); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: unicameral "Assembly of the Republic" or Cumhuriyet Meclisi (50 seats; members directly elected to 5-year terms by proportional representation system using a hybrid d'Hondt method with voter preferences for individual candidates


Economic overview

services-based, high-income EU island economy; heavy tourism; sustained growth between recovery of national banking system and COVID-19 trade restrictions; high living standards; a known financial hub, its stock exchange functions as an investment bridge between EU-and EEU-member countries

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$33.67 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$37,700 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, potatoes, pork, sheep milk, goat milk, barley, wheat, poultry, olives, tangerines/mandarins


tourism, food and beverage processing, cement and gypsum, ship repair and refurbishment, textiles, light chemicals, metal products, wood, paper, stone and clay products


$16.1 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

India 9%, Greece 9%, Libya 8%, United Kingdom 7% (2019)

Exports - commodities

ships, refined petroleum, packaged medicines, cheese, crude petroleum (2019)


$17.58 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Greece 16%, Italy 10%, Turkey 8%, Russia 5%, Germany 5%, United Kingdom 5%, China 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, ships, cars, coal tar oil, packaged medicines (2019)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Page last updated: Wednesday, November 16, 2022