Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas became Djibouti in 1977. The government holds longstanding ties to France, which maintains a military presence in the country, as does the US, Japan, Italy, Germany, Spain, and China.



total: 23,200 sq km

land: 23,180 sq km

water: 20 sq km


desert; torrid, dry

Natural resources

potential geothermal power, gold, clay, granite, limestone, marble, salt, diatomite, gypsum, pumice, petroleum

People and Society


957,273 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Somali 60%, Afar 35%, other 5% (mostly Yemeni Arab, also French, Ethiopian, and Italian)


French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar


Sunni Muslim 94% (nearly all Djiboutians), other 6% (mainly foreign-born residents - Shia Muslim, Christian, Hindu, Jewish, Baha'i, and atheist)

Population growth rate

1.97% (2022 est.)


Government type

presidential republic


name: Djibouti

Executive branch

chief of state: President Ismail Omar GUELLEH (since 8 May 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister Abdoulkader Kamil MOHAMED (since 1 April 2013)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale, formerly the Chamber of Deputies (65 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)


Economic overview

food import-dependent Horn of Africa economy driven by various national military bases and port-based trade; fairly resilient from COVID-19 disruptions; major re-exporter; increasing Ethiopian and Chinese trade relations; investing in infrastructure

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$5.42 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$5,500 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

vegetables, milk, beef, camel milk, lemons, limes, goat meat, mutton, beans, tomatoes


construction, agricultural processing, shipping


$5.15 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

Saudi Arabia 42%, India 15%, China 14%, Egypt 5%, South Korea 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

various animals, chlorides, dried legumes, industrial fatty acids/oils, coffee, chickpeas (2019)


$4.76 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

China 43%, United Arab Emirates 15%, India 7%, Turkey 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, fertilizers, iron sheeting, cars, palm oil (2019)

Exchange rates

Djiboutian francs (DJF) per US dollar -

Page last updated: Wednesday, June 15, 2022