Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940, it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union.



total: 45,228 sq km

land: 42,388 sq km

water: 2,840 sq km


maritime; wet, moderate winters, cool summers

Natural resources

oil shale, peat, rare earth elements, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud

People and Society


1,211,524 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Estonian 68.7%, Russian 24.8%, Ukrainian 1.7%, Belarusian 1%, Finn 0.6%, other 1.6%, unspecified 1.6% (2011 est.)


Estonian (official) 68.5%, Russian 29.6%, Ukrainian 0.6%, other 1.2%, unspecified 0.1% (2011 est.)


Orthodox 16.2%, Lutheran 9.9%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 2.2%, other 0.9%, none 54.1%, unspecified 16.7% (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.71% (2022 est.)


Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Tallinn

Executive branch

chief of state: President Alar KARIS (since 11 October 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Kaja KALLAS (since 26 January 2021)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by open- list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

advanced service-based EU and OECD economy; regional trade and telecommunications leader; recently rejected Baltic sea rail tunnel from Tallinn to Helsinki; flat income taxation; substantial welfare system; balanced budget culture; business-friendly climate

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$47.44 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$35,600 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, milk, barley, rapeseed, rye, oats, peas, potatoes, pork, triticale


food, engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textiles; information technology, telecommunications


$21.69 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Finland 13%, Sweden 9%, Latvia 8%, Russia 8%, United States 7%, Lithuania 6%, Germany 6% (2019)

Exports - commodities

broadcasting equipment, refined petroleum, coal tar oil, cars, prefabricated buildings (2019)


$21.73 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Russia 12%, Germany 10%, Finland 9%, Lithuania 7%, Latvia 7%, Sweden 6%, Poland 6%, China 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, coal tar oil, broadcasting equipment, packaged medicines (2019)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Page last updated: Wednesday, May 11, 2022