Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It gained complete independence in 1917. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are high-quality education, promotion of equality, and a national social welfare system.



total: 338,145 sq km

land: 303,815 sq km

water: 34,330 sq km


cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Natural resources

timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone

People and Society


5,601,547 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Finnish, Swedish, Russian, Estonian, Romani, Sami


Finnish (official) 86.5%, Swedish (official) 5.2%, Russian 1.6%, other 6.7% (2021 est.)


Lutheran 66.6%, Greek Orthodox 1.1%, other 1.7%, none 30.6% (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

0.24% (2022 est.)


Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Helsinki

Executive branch

chief of state: President Sauli NIINISTO (since 1 March 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Sanna MARIN (since 10 December 2019)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; 199 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member in the province of Aland directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

highly industrialized, export-based EU economy and euro user; high per capita GDP; major timber, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries; manageable public debts; rigid labor laws impose higher regulatory burdens

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$261.39 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$47,300 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, barley, oats, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, rye, pork, poultry, beef


metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing


$108.22 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 14%, Sweden 10%, United States 8%, Netherlands 6%, China 6%, Russia 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, paper and wood pulp products, cars, stainless steel, lumber (2019)


$107.39 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

Germany 16%, Sweden 14%, Russia 13%, China 6%, Netherlands 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, packaged medicines (2019)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Page last updated: Thursday, December 08, 2022