The Southern Lands are now divided into five administrative districts, two of which are archipelagos, Iles Crozet and Iles Kerguelen. The third is a district composed of two volcanic islands, Ile Saint-Paul and Ile Amsterdam. The fourth, Iles Eparses, consists of five scattered tropical islands around Madagascar. They contain no permanent inhabitants and are visited only by researchers studying the native fauna, scientists at the various scientific stations, fishermen, and military personnel. The fifth district is the Antarctic portion, which consists of “Adelie Land.” 



Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul: oceanic with persistent westerly winds and high humidity;

Iles Crozet: windy, cold, wet, and cloudy;

Iles Kerguelen: oceanic, cold, overcast, windy;

Iles Eparses: tropical

Natural resources

fish, crayfish, note, Glorioso Islands and Tromelin Island (Iles Eparses) have guano, phosphates, and coconuts

People and Society


Executive branch

chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017), represented by Prefect Florence JEANBLANC-RISLER (since 5 October 2022)


Economic overview

very small, fishing-based, domestic economic activity; military base servicing

Page last updated: Tuesday, November 15, 2022