Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



As Europe's largest economy and second most populous nation (after Russia), Germany is a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. Divided after World War II, the decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German reunification in 1990.



total: 357,022 sq km

land: 348,672 sq km

water: 8,350 sq km


temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind

Natural resources

coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land

People and Society


84,316,622 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

German 86.3%, Turkish 1.8%, Polish 1%, Syrian 1%, Romanian 1%, other/stateless/unspecified 8.9% (2020 est.)


German (official); note - Danish, Frisian, Sorbian, and Romani are official minority languages; Low German, Danish, North Frisian, Sater Frisian, Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian, and Romani are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages


Roman Catholic 26.7%, Protestant 24.3%, Muslim 3.5%, other 4.8%, none 40.7% (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.11% (2022 est.)


Government type

federal parliamentary republic


name: Berlin

Executive branch

chief of state: President Frank-Walter STEINMEIER (since 19 March 2017)

head of government: Chancellor Olaf SCHOLZ (since 8 December 2021)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:
Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 seats statutory, 71 current; members appointed by each of the 16 state governments)
Federal Diet or Bundestag (736 seats statutory, 736 for the 2021-25 term - total seats can vary each electoral term; currently includes 4 seats for independent members; approximately one-half of members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and approximately one-half directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members' terms depend upon the states they represent)


Economic overview

leading EU services-based export-driven economy; COVID-19 disrupted its modern manufacturing sector; highly skilled and educated labor force; positive current account balances; increasing public debt; low defense spending; second Russian gas pipeline

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$4.239 trillion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$50,900 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, sugar beets, wheat, barley, potatoes, pork, maize, rye, rapeseed, triticale


among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, automobiles, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles


$1.672 trillion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

United States 9%, France 8%, China 7%, Netherlands 6%, United Kingdom 6%, Italy 5%, Poland 5%, Austria 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, packaged medicines, aircraft, medical cultures/vaccines, industrial machinery (2019)


$1,452,300,000,000 (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Netherlands 9%, China 8%, France 7%, Belgium 6%, Poland 6%, Italy 6%, Czechia 5%, United States 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, packaged medicines, crude petroleum, refined petroleum, medical cultures/vaccines (2019)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Page last updated: Thursday, December 22, 2022