Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



Hungary became a Christian kingdom in A.D. 1000 and for many centuries served as a bulwark against Ottoman Turkish expansion in Europe. The country fell under communist rule following World War II. Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU five years later.



total: 93,028 sq km

land: 89,608 sq km

water: 3,420 sq km


temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Natural resources

bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land

People and Society


9,699,577 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Hungarian 85.6%, Romani 3.2%, German 1.9%, other 2.6%, unspecified 14.1% (2011 est.)


Hungarian (official) 99.6%, English 16%, German 11.2%, Russian 1.6%, Romanian 1.3%, French 1.2%, other 4.2%; note - shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Hungarian is the mother tongue of 98.9% of Hungarian speakers (2011 est.)


Roman Catholic 37.2%, Calvinist 11.6%, Lutheran 2.2%, Greek Catholic 1.8%, other 1.9%, none 18.2%, no response 27.2% (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.3% (2022 est.)


Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Budapest

Executive branch

chief of state: President Katalin NOVAK (since 10 May 2022)

head of government: Prime Minister Viktor ORBAN (since 29 May 2010)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (199 seats; 106 members directly elected in single-member constituencies by simple majority vote and 93 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party-list proportional representation vote, using the d’Hondt method; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

high-income EU and OECD economy; decreasing government spending; increasing judicial independence concerns; flat income taxation; increasingly dependent on energy imports; strong tourism and automotive manufacturing

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$302.32 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$31,000 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

maize, wheat, milk, sunflower seed, barley, rapeseed, sugar beet, apples, pork, grapes


mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles


$123.83 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 27%, Romania 5%, Italy 5%, Slovakia 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, packaged medicines, spark-ignition engines, video displays, broadcasting equipment (2019)


$120.25 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Germany 25%, China 6%, Poland 6%, Austria 6%, Czechia 5%, Slovakia 5%, Italy 5%, Netherlands 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, integrated circuits, packaged medicines, broadcasting equipment, crude petroleum (2019)

Exchange rates

forints (HUF) per US dollar -

Page last updated: Thursday, May 12, 2022