Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



Basutoland became Lesotho on independence from the United Kingdom in 1966.  Constitutional government was restored in 1993 after seven years of military rule. Constitutional reforms in the late 1998s restored relative political stability.



total: 30,355 sq km

land: 30,355 sq km

water: 0 sq km


temperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Natural resources

water, agricultural and grazing land, diamonds, sand, clay, building stone

People and Society


2,193,970 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Sotho 99.7%, Europeans, Asians, and other 0.3%


Sesotho (official) (southern Sotho), English (official), Zulu, Xhosa


Protestant 47.8% (Pentecostal 23.1%, Lesotho Evangelical 17.3%, Anglican 7.4%), Roman Catholic 39.3%, other Christian 9.1%, non-Christian 1.4%, none 2.3% (2014 est.)

Population growth rate

0.76% (2022 est.)


Government type

parliamentary constitutional monarchy


name: Maseru

Executive branch

chief of state: King LETSIE III (since 7 February 1996); note - King LETSIE III formerly occupied the throne from November 1990 to February 1995 while his father was in exile

head of government: Prime Minister Ntsokoane Samuel MATEKANE (4 November 2022)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
Senate (33 seats; 22 principal chiefs and 11 other senators nominated by the king with the advice of the Council of State, a 13-member body of key government and non-government officials; members serve 5-year terms)
National Assembly (120 seats; 80 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 40 elected through proportional representation; members serve 5-year terms)


Economic overview

lower middle-income economy surrounded by South Africa; environmentally fragile and politically unstable; key infrastructure and renewable energy investments; dire poverty; urban job and income losses due to COVID-19; systemic corruption

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$4.88 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$2,300 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, potatoes, maize, vegetables, fruit, beef, game meat, mutton, beans, wool


food, beverages, textiles, apparel assembly, handicrafts, construction, tourism


$900 million (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

United States 29%, Belgium 26%, South Africa 25%, Switzerland 6% (2019)

Exports - commodities

diamonds, clothing and apparel, low-voltage protection equipment, wheat products, footwear (2019)


$1.96 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

South Africa 85%, China 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, clothing and apparel, packaged medicines, delivery trucks, poultry meats (2019)

Exchange rates

maloti (LSL) per US dollar -

Page last updated: Thursday, November 10, 2022