Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



The Principality of Liechtenstein was established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1719. It became a sovereign state in 1806 and joined the German Confederation in 1815. Liechtenstein became fully independent in 1866 when the Confederation dissolved. Since World War II (in which Liechtenstein remained neutral), the country's low taxes have spurred outstanding economic growth.



total: 160 sq km

land: 160 sq km

water: 0 sq km


continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers

Natural resources

hydroelectric potential, arable land

People and Society


39,711 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Liechtensteiner 65.5%, Swiss 9.6%, Austrian 6%, German 4.5%, Italian 3.1%, other 11.4% (2020 est.)


German 91.5% (official) (Alemannic is the main dialect), Italian 1.5%, Turkish 1.3%, Portuguese 1.1%, other 4.6% (2015 est.)


Roman Catholic (official) 73.4%, Protestant Reformed 6.3%, Muslim 5.9%, Christian Orthodox 1.3%, Lutheran 1.2%, other Protestant 0.7%, other Christian 0.3%, other 0.8%, none 7%, unspecified 3.3% (2015 est.)

Population growth rate

0.72% (2022 est.)


Government type

constitutional monarchy


name: Vaduz

Executive branch

chief of state: Prince HANS-ADAM II (since 13 November 1989, assumed executive powers on 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent and Regent of Liechtenstein Prince ALOIS (son of the monarch, born 11 June 1968); note - 15 August 2004, HANS-ADAM II transferred the official duties of the ruling prince to ALOIS, but HANS-ADAM II retains status of chief of state

head of government: Prime Minister Daniel RISCH; Deputy Prime Minister Sabine MONAUNI (both since 25 March 2021)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Landtag (25 seats; members directly elected in 2 multi-seat constituencies by open-list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

high-income European economy; Schengen Area participant; key European financial leader; integrated with Swiss economy and franc currency user; one of the highest GDP per capita countries; relies on US and Eurozone markets for exports

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$4.978 billion (2014 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$139,100 (2009 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, barley, corn, potatoes; livestock, dairy products


electronics, metal manufacturing, dental products, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism, optical instruments


$3.217 billion (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities

small specialty machinery, connectors for audio and video, parts for motor vehicles, dental products, hardware, prepared foodstuffs, electronic equipment, optical products


(2015 est.)

Imports - commodities

agricultural products, raw materials, energy products, machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles

Exchange rates

Swiss francs (CHF) per US dollar -

Page last updated: Thursday, December 01, 2022