Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839 but gained a larger measure of autonomy. In 1867, Luxembourg attained full independence under the condition that it promise perpetual neutrality. The country became one of the six founding countries of the EEC (later the EU), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency zone.



total: 2,586 sq km

land: 2,586 sq km

water: 0 sq km


modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

Natural resources

iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land

People and Society


650,364 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Luxembourger 52.9%, Portuguese 14.5%, French 7.6%, Italian 3.7%, Belgian 3%, German 2%, Spanish 1.3%, Romania 1%, other 14% (2022 est.)


Luxembourgish (official administrative and judicial language and national language (spoken vernacular)) 55.8%, Portuguese 15.7%, French (official administrative, judicial, and legislative language) 12.1%, German (official administrative and judicial language) 3.1%, Italian 2.9%, English 2.1%, other 8.4% (2011 est.)


Christian (predominantly Roman Catholic) 70.6%, Muslim 2.3%, other (includes Buddhist, folk religions, Hindu, Jewish) 0.4%, unaffiliated 26.7% (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

1.64% (2022 est.)


Government type

constitutional monarchy


name: Luxembourg

Executive branch

chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)

head of government: Prime Minister Xavier BETTEL (since 4 December 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Francois BAUSCH (since 11 October 2019); Deputy Prime Minister Daniel KERSCH (since 4 February 2020)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - a 21-member Council of State appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies


Economic overview

high-income, EU-member European economy; global financial and information storage leader; high government spending; one of highest GDP per capita countries; unique audit accountancy based on company sizing; aging labor force; hit by COVID-19

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$69.72 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$110,300 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, wheat, barley, triticale, potatoes, pork, beef, grapes, rapeseed, oats


banking and financial services, construction, real estate services, iron, metals, and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation and logistics, chemicals, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism, biotechnology


$137.09 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 23%, France 13%, Belgium 12%, Netherlands 6%, Italy 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

iron and iron products, tires, cars, broadcasting equipment, clothing and apparel  (2019)


$110.1 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Belgium 27%, Germany 24%, France 11%, Netherlands 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, scrap iron, aircraft (2019)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Page last updated: Tuesday, May 17, 2022