Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



From 1496, Montenegro maintained a level of autonomy within the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro was a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes.   In 1852, it transformed into a secular principality. In 1918, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became Yugoslavia in 1929. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro first federated with Serbia, but in 2006 voted for complete independence.



total: 13,812 sq km

land: 13,452 sq km

water: 360 sq km


Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland

Natural resources

bauxite, hydroelectricity

People and Society


604,966 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Montenegrin 45%, Serbian 28.7%, Bosniak 8.7%, Albanian 4.9%, Muslim 3.3%, Romani 1%, Croat 1%, other 2.6%, unspecified 4.9% (2011 est.)


Serbian 42.9%, Montenegrin (official) 37%, Bosnian 5.3%, Albanian 5.3%, Serbo-Croat 2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 4% (2011 est.)


Orthodox 72.1%, Muslim 19.1%, Catholic 3.4%, atheist 1.2%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.6% (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.41% (2022 est.)


Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Podgorica; note - Cetinje retains the status of "Old Royal Capital"

Executive branch

chief of state: President Milo DJUKANOVIC (since 20 May 2018)

head of government: Prime Minister Dritan ABAZOVIC (since 28 April 2022)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly or Skupstina (81 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

upper middle-income Balkan economy; unsanctioned euro user; controversial religious property ownership law; persistent corruption; major infrastructure investments and high expenditures; growing offshore banking destination

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$11.36 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$18,300 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, potatoes, grapes, vegetables, tomatoes, watermelons, wheat, apples, cabbages, barley


steelmaking, aluminum, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism


$1.24 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Serbia 17%, Hungary 15%, China 11%, Russia 7%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 6%, Germany 6%, Italy 5%, Poland 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

aluminum, packaged medicines, cars, zinc, wine (2019)


$2.9 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Serbia 30%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 8%, Croatia 8%, Italy 6%, Greece 6%, Germany 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cars, packaged medicines, recreational boats, cigarettes (2019)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Page last updated: Friday, May 13, 2022