Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



Niger became independent from France in 1960. It is one of the poorest countries in the world with insufficient funds to develop its resource base. The largely agrarian and subsistence-based economy is frequently disrupted by extended droughts common to the Sahel region of Africa.



total: 1.267 million sq km

land: 1,266,700 sq km

water: 300 sq km


desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south

Natural resources

uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, molybdenum, gypsum, salt, petroleum

People and Society


24,484,587 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Hausa 53.1%, Zarma/Songhai 21.2%, Tuareg 11%, Fulani (Peuhl) 6.5%, Kanuri 5.9%, Gurma 0.8%, Arab 0.4%, Tubu 0.4%, other/unavailable 0.9% (2006 est.)


French (official), Hausa, Djerma


Muslim 99.3%, Christian 0.3%, animist 0.2%, none 0.1% (2012 est.)

Population growth rate

3.66% (2022 est.)


Government type

semi-presidential republic


name: Niamey

Executive branch

chief of state: President Mohamed BAZOUM (since 2 April 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Ouhoumoudou MAHAMADOU (since 3 April 2021)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (171 statutory seats - 166 currently; 158 members directly elected from 8 multi-member constituencies in 7 regions and Niamey by party-list proportional representation, 8 reserved for minorities elected in special single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 5 seats reserved for Nigeriens living abroad - l seat per continent - elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)


Economic overview

low-income Sahel economy; major instability and humanitarian crises limit economic activity; COVID-19 eliminated recent antipoverty gains; economy rebounding since December 2020 Nigerian border reopening and new investments; uranium resource rich

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$28.97 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$1,200 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

millet, cow peas, sorghum, onions, milk, groundnuts, cassava, cabbages, goat milk, fruit


uranium mining, petroleum, cement, brick, soap, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses


$1.39 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

United Arab Emirates 54%, China 25%, France 7%, Pakistan 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

gold, sesame seeds, uranium, natural gas, refined petroleum (2019)


$3.4 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

China 19%, France 9%, United Arab Emirates 7%, Cote d'Ivoire 6%, India 6%, Nigeria 5%, Togo 5%, Turkey 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

rice, packaged medicines, palm oil, cars, cement (2019)

Exchange rates

Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -

Page last updated: Thursday, July 28, 2022