North Macedonia

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



North Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991 under the name of "Macedonia." In June 2018, Macedonia and Greece signed the Prespa Accord whereby the Republic of Macedonia agreed to change its name to the Republic of North Macedonia. Following ratification by both countries, the agreement went into force on 12 February 2019.



total: 25,713 sq km

land: 25,433 sq km

water: 280 sq km


warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall

Natural resources

low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land

People and Society


2,130,936 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Macedonian 58.4%, Albanian 24.3%, Turkish 3.9%, Romani 2.5%, Serb 1.3%, other 2.3%, persons for whom data were taken from administrative sources and no ethnic affiliation data was available 7.2% (2021 est.)


Macedonian (official) 61.4%, Albanian (official) 24.3%, Turkish 3.4%, Romani 1.7%, other (includes Aromanian (Vlach) and Bosnian) 2%, persons for whom data were taken from administrative sources and no language data was available 7.2% (2021 est.); note - data represent mother tongue; minority languages are co-official with Macedonian in municipalities where they are spoken by at least 20% of the population; Albanian is co-official in Tetovo, Brvenica, Vrapciste, and other municipalities; Turkish is co-official in Centar Zupa and Plasnica; Romani is co-official in Suto Orizari; Aromanian is co-official in Krusevo; Serbian is co-official in Cucer Sandevo


Macedonian Orthodox 46.1%, Muslim 32.2%, other Christian 13.8%, other and non-believers 0.5%, unspecified 0.2%, persons for whom data were taken from administrative sources and no religious affiliation data was available 7.2% (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

0.12% (2022 est.)


Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Skopje

Executive branch

chief of state: President Stevo PENDAROVSKI (since 12 May 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Dimitar KOVACEVSKI (since 16 January 2022)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly - Sobraine in Macedonian, Kuvend in Albanian (between 120 and 140 seats, currently 120; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote; possibility of 3 directly elected in diaspora constituencies by simple majority vote provided there is sufficient voter turnout; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

growing upper middle-income European economy; EU accession stalled due to Bulgarian dispute; new NATO member; private consumption-driven growth; investment declined due to COVID-19; regional economic power gains since Greek naming resolution

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$33.02 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$15,800 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, grapes, wheat, potatoes, green chillies/peppers, cabbages, tomatoes, maize, barley, watermelons


food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals, automotive parts


$7.18 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 45%, Serbia 8%, Bulgaria 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

support catalysts, centrifuges, insulated wiring, vehicle parts, buses, seats (2019)


$8.76 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

United Kingdom 14%, Germany 14%, Greece 8%, Serbia 8% (2019)

Imports - commodities

platinum, refined petroleum, laboratory ceramics, cars, insulated wiring (2019)

Exchange rates

Macedonian denars (MKD) per US dollar -

Page last updated: Wednesday, May 18, 2022