Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity in 994. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence from Sweden.



total: 323,802 sq km

land: 304,282 sq km

water: 19,520 sq km


temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower

People and Society


5,553,840 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Norwegian 81.5% (includes about 60,000 Sami), other European 8.9%, other 9.6% (2021 est.)


Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities; note - Sami has three dialects: Lule, North Sami, and South Sami; Sami is an official language in nine municipalities in Norway's three northernmost counties: Finnmark, Nordland, and Troms


Church of Norway (Evangelical Lutheran - official) 67.5%, Muslim 3.1%, Roman Catholic 3.1%, other Christian 3.8%, other 2.6%, unspecified 19.9% (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

0.8% (2022 est.)


Government type

parliamentary constitutional monarchy


name: Oslo

Executive branch

chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS (son of the monarch, born 20 July 1973)

head of government: Prime Minister Jonas Gahr STORE (since 14 October 2021); note - Prime Minister Erna SOLBERG resigned on 12 October 2021

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Storting (169 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

high-income non-EU European economy; aging labor force; large state-owned energy company constrains budget and spending; largest oil sovereign wealth fund; major fishing, forestry, and extraction industries; large welfare system

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$342.06 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$63,600 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, barley, wheat, potatoes, oats, pork, poultry, beef, eggs, rye


petroleum and gas, shipping, fishing, aquaculture, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles


$117.06 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

United Kingdom 18%, Germany 14%, Netherlands 10%, Sweden 9%, France 6%, United States 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, natural gas, fish, refined petroleum, aluminum (2019)


$119 (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Sweden 17%, Germany 12%, China 8%, Denmark 7%, United States 6%, United Kingdom 5%, Netherlands 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, natural gas, crude petroleum (2019)

Exchange rates

Norwegian kroner (NOK) per US dollar -

Page last updated: Thursday, December 01, 2022