Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



Following its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil, its wealthiest colony, in 1822. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.



total: 92,090 sq km

land: 91,470 sq km

water: 620 sq km


maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south

Natural resources

fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower

People and Society


10,242,081 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Portuguese 95%; citizens from Portugal’s former colonies in Africa, Asia (Han Chinese), and South America (Brazilian) and other foreign born 5%


Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)


Roman Catholic 81%, other Christian 3.3%, other (includes Jewish, Muslim) 0.6%, none 6.8%, unspecified 8.3% (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.2% (2022 est.)


Government type

semi-presidential republic


name: Lisbon

Executive branch

chief of state: President Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (since 9 March 2016)

head of government: Prime Minister Antonio Luis Santos da COSTA (since 24 November 2015)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; 226 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote and 4 members - 2 each in 2 constituencies representing Portuguese living abroad - directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

high-income European economy; EU and NATO member; recently blocked Chinese utility takeover; major tourism, banking, and telecommunications sectors; very high public debt and bureaucracy; major renewable energy producer

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$331.64 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$32,200 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, tomatoes, olives, grapes, maize, potatoes, pork, apples, oranges, poultry


textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper and pulp, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, automobiles and auto parts, base metals, minerals, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; dairy products, wine, other foodstuffs; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism, plastics, financial services, optics


$85.28 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Spain 23%, France 13%, Germany 12%, United Kingdom 6%, United States 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, leather footwear, paper products, tires (2019)


$89.31 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Spain 29%, Germany 13%, France 9%, Italy 5%, Netherlands 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, crude petroleum, aircraft, packaged medicines, refined petroleum, natural gas (2019)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Page last updated: Friday, May 13, 2022