Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



Present-day Turkmenistan covers territory that has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries. The area was ruled in antiquity by various Persian empires, and was conquered by Alexander the Great, Muslim armies, the Mongols, Turkic warriors, and eventually the Russians. In 1924, Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic; it achieved independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991.



total: 488,100 sq km

land: 469,930 sq km

water: 18,170 sq km


subtropical desert

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, sulfur, salt

People and Society


5,636,011 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Turkmen 85%, Uzbek 5%, Russian 4%, other 6% (2003 est.)


Turkmen (official) 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%


Muslim 93%, Christian 6.4%, Buddhist <1%, folk religion <1%, Jewish <1%, other <1%, unspecified <1% (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.99% (2022 est.)


Government type

presidential republic; authoritarian


name: Ashgabat (Ashkhabad)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Serdar BERDIMUHAMEDOW (since 19 March 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Serdar BERDIMUHAMEDOW (since 19 March 2022)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Council or Milli Genesi consists of:
People's Council or Halk Maslahaty (56 seats; 48 members indirectly elected by provincial councils and 8 members appointed by the president)
Assembly or Mejlisi (125 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed to serve 5-year terms)

note: in September 2020, the Turkmenistani legislature (Milli Genesi) adopted a constitutional amendment creating an upper chamber, making the legislature bicameral; the chairperson of the Halk Maslahaty is now designated as the constitutional successor to the presidency; as of March 2022, Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW continues to serve in this position after stepping away from the presidency


Economic overview

upper middle-income Central Asian economy; has 10% of global natural gas reserves, exporting to Russia and China; natural resource rich; authoritarian and dominated by state-owned enterprises; major central-south Asian pipeline development

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$92.33 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$15,500 (2019 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, wheat, cotton, tomatoes, potatoes, watermelons, grapes, sugar beet, beef, rice


natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing


$7.458 billion (2017 est.)

Exports - partners

China 82% (2019)

Exports - commodities

natural gas, refined petroleum, crude petroleum, cotton fibers, fertilizers (2019)


$4.571 billion (2017 est.)

Imports - partners

Turkey 25%, Russia 18%, China 14%, Germany 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

iron products, harvesting machinery, packaged medicines, broadcasting equipment, tractors (2019)

Exchange rates

Turkmenistani manat (TMM) per US dollar -

Page last updated: Wednesday, June 15, 2022