Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



Ukraine was the center of the first eastern Slavic state, Kyivan Rus, which during the 10th and 11th centuries was the largest and most powerful state in Europe. Although Ukraine achieved independence in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR, democracy and prosperity remained elusive. The legacy of state control stalled efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civil liberties. Ukraine is fiercely resisting the 2022 Russian invasion, which has destroyed infrastructure and caused a humanitarian crisis.



total: 603,550 sq km

land: 579,330 sq km

water: 24,220 sq km


temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; warm summers across the greater part of the country, hot in the south

Natural resources

iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber, arable land

People and Society


43,528,136 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%, Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001 est.)


Ukrainian (official) 67.5%, Russian (regional language) 29.6%, other (includes small Crimean Tatar-, Moldovan/Romanian-, and Hungarian-speaking minorities) 2.9% (2001 est.); note - in February 2018, the Constitutional Court ruled that 2012 language legislation entitling a language spoken by at least 10% of an oblast's population to be given the status of "regional language" - allowing for its use in courts, schools, and other government institutions - was unconstitutional, thus making the law invalid; Ukrainian remains the country's only official nationwide language


Orthodox (includes the Orthodox Church of Ukraine (OCU), Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC), and the Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate (UOC-MP)), Ukrainian Greek Catholic, Roman Catholic, Protestant, Muslim, Jewish (2013 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.5% (2022 est.)


Government type

semi-presidential republic


name: Kyiv (Kiev)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Volodymyr ZELENSKYY (since 20 May 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Denys SHMYHAL (since 4 March 2020)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Supreme Council or Verkhovna Rada (450 seats; 225 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 225 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed, party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)


Economic overview

lower middle-income non-EU Eastern European economy; major wheat producer; industrial and energy exporter; big fiscal reallocations toward defenses; seeking $2 billion in monthly US wartime aid to combat Russia; mass war-related emigration and homelessness

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$516.68 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$12,400 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

maize, wheat, potatoes, sunflower seed, sugar beet, milk, barley, soybeans, rapeseed, tomatoes


coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food processing


$60.67 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Russia 9%, China 8%, Germany 6%, Poland 6%, Italy 5%, Turkey 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

corn, sunflower seed oils, iron and iron products, wheat, insulated wiring, rapeseed (2019)


$62.46 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 13%, Russia 12%, Germany 10%, Poland 9%, Belarus 7% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cars, packaged medicines, coal, natural gas (2019)

Exchange rates

hryvnia (UAH) per US dollar -

Page last updated: Wednesday, June 15, 2022