Albania

Country Summary

2023 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Albania declared independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912, but Italy conquered it in 1939 and Germany occupied it in 1943. Communist partisans took over the country in 1944, and Albania allied itself first with the USSR (until 1960) and then China (until 1978). Now a multiparty democracy, Albania joined NATO in 2009 and became an official candidate for EU membership in 2014.

Geography

Area

total: 28,748 sq km
land: 27,398 sq km
water: 1,350 sq km

Climate

mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, coal, bauxite, chromite, copper, iron ore, nickel, salt, timber, hydropower, arable land

People and Society

Population

total: 3,107,100
male: 1,531,063
female: 1,576,037 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Albanian 82.6%, Greek 0.9%, other 1% (including Vlach, Romani, Macedonian, Montenegrin, and Egyptian), unspecified 15.5% (2011 est.)

Languages

Albanian 98.8% (official - derived from Tosk dialect), Greek 0.5%, other 0.6% (including Macedonian, Romani, Vlach, Turkish, Italian, and Serbo-Croatian), unspecified 0.1% (2011 est.)

Religions

Muslim 56.7%, Roman Catholic 10%, Orthodox 6.8%, atheist 2.5%, Bektashi (a Sufi order) 2.1%, other 5.7%, unspecified 16.2% (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

0.16% (2024 est.)

Government

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Tirana (Tirane)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Bajram BEGAJ (since 24 July 2022)
head of government: Prime Minister Edi RAMA (since 10 September 2013)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly or Kuvendi (140 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by open party-list proportional representation vote using the D'Hondt method; members serve 4-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

upper-middle -income Balkan economy; EU accession candidate; growth bolstered by tourism, services, construction, and private consumption; fiscal consolidation through revenue collection to address public debt; challenges include weak governance, corruption, climate adaptation, vulnerability to energy sector shocks, and emigration of workers

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$43.032 billion (2022 est.)
$41.039 billion (2021 est.)
$37.682 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$15,500 (2022 est.)
$14,600 (2021 est.)
$13,300 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, maize, tomatoes, potatoes, watermelons, wheat, grapes, olives, cucumbers/gherkins, onions (2022)

Industries

food; footwear, apparel and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Exports

$7.057 billion (2022 est.)
$5.612 billion (2021 est.)
$3.461 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Italy 41%, Greece 10%, Spain 7%, Germany 5%, China 4% (2022)

Exports - commodities

garments, footwear, iron alloys, electricity, crude petroleum (2022)

Imports

$9.016 billion (2022 est.)
$8.004 billion (2021 est.)
$5.671 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Italy 25%, Turkey 14%, Greece 12%, China 10%, Germany 5% (2022)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, garments, electricity, cars, raw iron bars (2022)

Exchange rates

leke (ALL) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
113.042 (2022 est.)
103.52 (2021 est.)
108.65 (2020 est.)
109.851 (2019 est.)
107.989 (2018 est.)


Page last updated: Tuesday, June 18, 2024