Algeria

Country Summary

2023 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Algeria was heavily colonized by the French in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. A bloody eight-year struggle culminated in Algerian independence in 1962.

Geography

Area

total: 2,381,740 sq km
land: 2,381,740 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Climate

arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc

People and Society

Population

total: 47,022,473
male: 23,854,821
female: 23,167,652 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Arab-Amazigh 99%, European less than 1%

Languages

Arabic (official), French (lingua franca), Tamazight (official) (dialects include Kabyle (Taqbaylit), Shawiya (Tacawit), Mzab, Tuareg (Tamahaq))

Religions

Muslim (official; predominantly Sunni) 99%, other (includes Christian, Jewish, Ahmadi Muslim, Shia Muslim, Ibadi Muslim) <1% (2012 est.)

Population growth rate

1.54% (2024 est.)

Government

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Algiers

Executive branch

chief of state: President Abdelmadjid TEBBOUNE (since 12 December 2019)
head of government: Prime Minister Nadir LARBAOUI (since 11 November 2023)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
Council of the Nation or Majlis al-Umma (174 seats, statutory; 170 currently); two-thirds of members indirectly elected by simple majority vote by an electoral college composed of local assemblies within each wilaya, and one-third of members appointed by the president; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years)
National People's Assembly or al-Majlis al-Sha'abi al-Watani (407 seats, including 8 seats for Algerian diaspora); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by open-list proportional representation vote using the Hare quota method; members serve 5-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

suffering oil and gas economy; lack of sector and market diversification; political instability chilling domestic consumption; poor credit access and declines in business confidence; COVID-19 austerity policies; delayed promised socio-economic reforms

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$502.837 billion (2022 est.)
$487.245 billion (2021 est.)
$471.223 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$11,200 (2022 est.)
$11,000 (2021 est.)
$10,800 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

potatoes, wheat, milk, watermelons, onions, tomatoes, barley, vegetables, dates, oranges (2022)

Industries

petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Exports

$69.058 billion (2022 est.)
$41.851 billion (2021 est.)
$24.902 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Italy 29%, Spain 12%, France 12%, US 5%, South Korea 5% (2022)

Exports - commodities

natural gas, crude petroleum, refined petroleum, fertilizers, ammonia (2022)

Imports

$46.617 billion (2022 est.)
$44.302 billion (2021 est.)
$42.347 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 18%, France 14%, Italy 7%, Turkey 6%, Brazil 6% (2022)

Imports - commodities

wheat, milk, plastics, corn, iron ore (2022)

Exchange rates

Algerian dinars (DZD) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
141.995 (2022 est.)
135.064 (2021 est.)
126.777 (2020 est.)
119.354 (2019 est.)
116.594 (2018 est.)


Page last updated: Tuesday, June 18, 2024