Country Summary



Algeria was heavily colonized by the French in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. A bloody eight-year struggle culminated in Algerian independence in 1962.



total: 2,381,740 sq km
land: 2,381,740 sq km
water: 0 sq km


arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc

People and Society


44,758,398 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Arab-Amazigh 99%, European less than 1%


Arabic (official), French (lingua franca), Tamazight (official) (dialects include Kabyle (Taqbaylit), Shawiya (Tacawit), Mzab, Tuareg (Tamahaq))


Muslim (official; predominantly Sunni) 99%, other (includes Christian, Jewish, Ahmadi Muslim, Shia Muslim, Ibadi Muslim) <1% (2012 est.)

Population growth rate

1.62% (2023 est.)


Government type

presidential republic


name: Algiers

Executive branch

chief of state: President Abdelmadjid TEBBOUNE (since 12 December 2019)
head of government: Prime Minister Nadir LARBAOUI (since 11 November 2023)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
Council of the Nation or Majlis al-Umma (174 seats, statutory; 170 currently); two-thirds of members indirectly elected by simple majority vote by an electoral college composed of local assemblies within each wilaya, and one-third of members appointed by the president; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years)
National People's Assembly or al-Majlis al-Sha'abi al-Watani (407 seats, including 8 seats for Algerian diaspora); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by open-list proportional representation vote using the Hare quota method; members serve 5-year terms)


Economic overview

suffering oil and gas economy; lack of sector and market diversification; political instability chilling domestic consumption; poor credit access and declines in business confidence; COVID-19 austerity policies; delayed promised socio-economic reforms

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$487.716 billion (2021 est.)
$471.223 billion (2020 est.)
$496.547 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$11,000 (2021 est.)
$10,800 (2020 est.)
$11,600 (2019 est.)

Agricultural products

potatoes, wheat, milk, watermelons, barley, onions, tomatoes, oranges, dates, vegetables


petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing


$41.776 billion (2021 est.)
$24.902 billion (2020 est.)
$38.551 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

Italy 13%, France 13%, Spain 12%, United States 7%, United Kingdom 7%, India 5%, South Korea 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

natural gas, crude petroleum, refined petroleum, fertilizers, ammonia (2021)


$44.322 billion (2021 est.)
$42.347 billion (2020 est.)
$54.259 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

China 18%, France 14%, Italy 8%, Spain 8%, Germany 5%, Turkey 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, wheat, packaged medical supplies, milk, vehicle parts (2019)

Exchange rates

Algerian dinars (DZD) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
135.064 (2021 est.)
126.777 (2020 est.)
119.354 (2019 est.)
116.594 (2018 est.)
110.973 (2017 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, February 21, 2024