Antigua and Barbuda

Country Summary



The Siboney were the first people to inhabit the islands in 2400 B.C., but the Arawaks populated the islands when COLUMBUS landed on his second voyage in 1493. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.



total: 443 sq km
land: 443 sq km
water: 0 sq km


tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation

Natural resources

NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism

People and Society


101,489 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

African descent 87.3%, mixed 4.7%, Hispanic 2.7%, White 1.6%, other 2.7%, unspecified 0.9% (2011 est.)


English (official), Antiguan Creole (an English-based creole)


Protestant 68.3% (Anglican 17.6%, Seventh Day Adventist 12.4%, Pentecostal 12.2%, Moravian 8.3%, Methodist 5.6%, Wesleyan Holiness 4.5%, Church of God 4.1%, Baptist 3.6%), Roman Catholic 8.2%, other 12.2%, unspecified 5.5%, none 5.9% (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

1.13% (2023 est.)


Government type

parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm


name: Saint John's

Executive branch

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Rodney WILLIAMS (since 14 August 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Gaston BROWNE (since 13 June 2014)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
Senate (17 seats; members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and leader of the opposition; members served 5-year terms)
House of Representatives (19 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms; in addition, 1 ex-officio seat is allocated for the attorney general and 1 seat for the speaker of the House - elected by the House membership following its first post-election session)


Economic overview

dual island-tourism and construction-driven economy; emerging “blue economy”; limited water supply and susceptibility to hurricanes limit activity; improving road infrastructure; friendly to foreign direct investment; looking at financial innovation in cryptocurrency and blockchain technologies

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.783 billion (2021 est.)
$1.693 billion (2020 est.)
$2.122 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$19,100 (2021 est.)
$18,300 (2020 est.)
$23,000 (2019 est.)

Agricultural products

tropical fruit, milk, mangoes/guavas, melons, tomatoes, pineapples, lemons, limes, eggplants, onions


tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)


$749.476 million (2021 est.)
$590.849 million (2020 est.)
$1.196 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

Suriname 20%, Barbados 17%, Poland 12%, United Kingdom 10%, France 7% (2021)

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, ships, gas turbines, aircraft parts, lobster, durum wheat (2021)


$868.797 million (2021 est.)
$737.693 million (2020 est.)
$1.18 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

United States 42%, Poland 25%, China 10%, Brazil 3%, Trinidad and Tobago 2% (2021)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, ships, recreational boats, cars, poultry  (2021)

Exchange rates

East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
2.7 (2021 est.)
2.7 (2020 est.)
2.7 (2019 est.)
2.7 (2018 est.)
2.7 (2017 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, February 21, 2024