Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



In 1816, the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata declared their independence from Spain. After Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay left, the area that remained became Argentina. The country's population and culture were heavily shaped by immigrants from throughout Europe.



total: 2,780,400 sq km
land: 2,736,690 sq km
water: 43,710 sq km


mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest

Natural resources

fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium, arable land

People and Society


46,621,847 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

European (mostly Spanish and Italian descent) and Mestizo (mixed European and Amerindian ancestry) 97.2%, Amerindian 2.4%, African descent 0.4% (2010 est.)


Spanish (official), Italian, English, German, French, indigenous (Quechua, Guarani, Mapudungun)


Roman Catholic 62.9%, Evangelical 15.3% (Pentecostal 13%, other Evangelical 2.3%), Jehovah's Witness and Church of Jesus Christ 1.4%, other 1.2% (includes Muslim, Jewish), none 18.9% (includes agnostic and atheist), unspecified 0.3% (2019 est.)

Population growth rate

0.8% (2023 est.)


Government type

presidential republic


name: Buenos Aires

Executive branch

chief of state: President Alberto Ángel FERNÁNDEZ (since 10 December 2019); Vice President Cristina FERNÁNDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 December 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Alberto Ángel FERNÁNDEZ (since 10 December 2019); Vice President Cristina FERNÁNDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 December 2019)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of:
Senate or Senado (72 seats; members directly elected on a provincial basis with 2 seats awarded to the party with the most votes and 1 seat to the party with the second highest number of votes; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years)
Chamber of Deputies or Cámara de Diputados (257 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote using the D'Hondt method; members serve 4-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 2 years)


Economic overview

large diversified economy; financial risks from debt obligations, rapid inflation, and reduced investor appetites; resource-rich, export-led growth model; increasing trade relations with China; G20 and OAS leader; tendency to nationalize businesses and under-report inflation

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$986.134 billion (2021 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$21,500 (2021 est.)

Agricultural products

maize, soybeans, wheat, sugar cane, milk, barley, sunflower seed, beef, grapes, potatoes


food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel


$87.415 billion (2021 est.)

Exports - partners

Brazil 16%, China 11%, United States 7%, Chile 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

soybean products, corn, delivery trucks, wheat, frozen meat, gold (2019)


$72.362 billion (2021 est.)

Imports - partners

Brazil 21%, China 18%, US 14%, Germany 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, vehicle parts, natural gas, soybeans (2019)

Exchange rates

Argentine pesos (ARS) per US dollar -
94.991 (2021 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, March 01, 2023