Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



In 1783, the Sunni Al-Khalifa family took power in Bahrain. In order to secure these holdings, it entered into a series of treaties with the UK during the 19th century that made Bahrain a British protectorate. The archipelago attained its independence in 1971.



total: 760 sq km
land: 760 sq km
water: 0 sq km


arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Natural resources

oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls

People and Society


total: 1,566,888
male: 940,022
female: 626,866 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Bahraini 47.4%, Asian 43.4%, other Arab 4.9%, African 1.4%, North American 1.1%, Gulf Co-operative countries 0.9%, European 0.8%, other 0.1% (2020 est.)


Arabic (official), English, Farsi, Urdu


Muslim 74.2%, other (includes Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Baha'i) 25.8% (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.82% (2024 est.)


Government type

constitutional monarchy


name: Manama

Executive branch

chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al-Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad Al-Khalifa (born 21 October 1969)
head of government: Prime Minister Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad Al-Khalifa (since 11 November 2020); Deputy Prime Minister KHALID bin Abdallah Al Khalifa (since May 2011)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Assembly consists of:
Consultative Council or Majlis al-Shura (40 seats; members appointed by the king)
Council of Representatives or Majlis al-Nuwab (40 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 4-year renewable terms)


Economic overview

growing, economically diverse Middle Eastern island economy; major recovery and balancing efforts to fulfill Economic Vision 2030; regional finance hub; increasing openness; high youth unemployment; water scarcity amid reservoir depletion

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$76.342 billion (2022 est.)
$72.803 billion (2021 est.)
$70.91 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$51,900 (2022 est.)
$49,800 (2021 est.)
$48,000 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

lamb/mutton, dates, milk, chicken, tomatoes, fruits, sheep offal, eggs, sheepskins, cucumbers/gherkins (2022)


petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron pelletization, fertilizers, Islamic and offshore banking, insurance, ship repairing, tourism


$44.58 billion (2022 est.)
$35.653 billion (2021 est.)
$25.68 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Saudi Arabia 15%, UAE 10%, US 9%, Japan 5%, India 4% (2022)

Exports - commodities

aluminum, refined petroleum, iron ore, aluminum wire, iron blocks (2022)


$33.066 billion (2022 est.)
$27.996 billion (2021 est.)
$23.728 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 15%, UAE 12%, Brazil 9%, Australia 8%, India 7% (2022)

Imports - commodities

iron ore, aluminum oxide, cars, gold, ships (2022)

Exchange rates

Bahraini dinars (BHD) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
0.376 (2022 est.)
0.376 (2021 est.)
0.376 (2020 est.)
0.376 (2019 est.)
0.376 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, May 22, 2024