Bahrain

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

In 1783, the Sunni Al-Khalifa family took power in Bahrain. In order to secure these holdings, it entered into a series of treaties with the UK during the 19th century that made Bahrain a British protectorate. The archipelago attained its independence in 1971.

Geography

Area

total: 760 sq km

land: 760 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Climate

arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Natural resources

oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls

People and Society

Population

1,540,558 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Bahraini 46%, Asian 45.5%, other Arab 4.7%, African 1.6%, European 1%, other 1.2% (includes Gulf Co-operative country nationals, North and South Americans, and Oceanians) (2010 est.)

Languages

Arabic (official), English, Farsi, Urdu

Religions

Muslim 73.7%, Christian 9.3%, Jewish 0.1%, other 16.9% (2017 est.)

Population growth rate

0.88% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

constitutional monarchy

Capital

name: Manama

Executive branch

chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al-Khalifa (since 6 March 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister SALMAN bin Hamad Al-Khalifa (since 11 November 2020); first deputy prime minister (vacant); Deputy Prime Ministers MUHAMMAD bin Mubarak Al-Khalifa (since September 2005), Jawad bin Salim al-ARAIDH, ALI bin Khalifa bin Salman Al-Khalifa (since 11 December 2006), KHALID bin Abdallah Al-Khalifa (since November 2010); note - KHALIFA ibn Salman Al Khalifa, who served as prime minister since Bahrain's independence in 1971, died on 11 November 2020

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Assembly consists of:
Consultative Council or Majlis al-Shura (40 seats; members appointed by the king)
Council of Representatives or Majlis al-Nuwab (40 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 4-year renewable terms)

Economy

Economic overview

heavily dependent oil/gas economy, has suffered due to lower prices and COVID-19 demand reductions; diversification struggles driven by unemployment and low-skilled labor force; deployed fiscal balancing efforts; emerging tourism industry hit hard by COVID-19 disruptions

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$69.65 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$40,900 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

mutton, dates, milk, poultry, tomatoes, fruit, sheep offals, sheep skins, eggs, pumpkins

Industries

petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron pelletization, fertilizers, Islamic and offshore banking, insurance, ship repairing, tourism

Exports

$30.1 billion (2018 est.)

Exports - partners

United Arab Emirates 31%, Saudi Arabia 12%, Japan 8%, United States 8% (2019)

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, aluminum and plating, crude petroleum, iron ore, gold (2019)

Imports

$27.19 billion (2018 est.)

Imports - partners

United Arab Emirates 27%, China 11%, Saudi Arabia 7%, United States 5%, Brazil 5%, Japan 5%, India 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars, iron ore, jewelry, gold, gas turbines (2019)


Page last updated: Wednesday, Jun 15, 2022