Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



In 1783, the Sunni Al-Khalifa family took power in Bahrain. In order to secure these holdings, it entered into a series of treaties with the UK during the 19th century that made Bahrain a British protectorate. The archipelago attained its independence in 1971.



total: 760 sq km
land: 760 sq km
water: 0 sq km


arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Natural resources

oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls

People and Society


1,553,886 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Bahraini 46%, Asian 45.5%, other Arab 4.7%, African 1.6%, European 1%, other 1.2% (includes Gulf Co-operative country nationals, North and South Americans, and Oceanians) (2010 est.)


Arabic (official), English, Farsi, Urdu


Muslim 73.7%, Christian 9.3%, Jewish 0.1%, other 16.9% (2017 est.)

Population growth rate

0.85% (2023 est.)


Government type

constitutional monarchy


name: Manama

Executive branch

chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al-Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad Al-Khalifa (born 21 October 1969)
head of government: Prime Minister Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad Al-Khalifa (since 11 November 2020); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Infrastructure KHALID bin Abdallah Al Khalifa (since 13 June 2022)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Assembly consists of:
Consultative Council or Majlis al-Shura (40 seats; members appointed by the king)
Council of Representatives or Majlis al-Nuwab (40 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 4-year renewable terms)


Economic overview

heavily dependent oil/gas economy, has suffered due to lower prices and COVID-19 demand reductions; diversification struggles driven by unemployment and low-skilled labor force; deployed fiscal balancing efforts; emerging tourism industry hit hard by COVID-19 disruptions

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$72.267 billion (2021 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$49,400 (2021 est.)

Agricultural products

mutton, dates, milk, poultry, tomatoes, fruit, sheep offals, sheep skins, eggs, pumpkins


petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron pelletization, fertilizers, Islamic and offshore banking, insurance, ship repairing, tourism


$30.097 billion (2018 est.)

Exports - partners

United Arab Emirates 31%, Saudi Arabia 12%, Japan 8%, United States 8% (2019)

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, aluminum and plating, crude petroleum, iron ore, gold (2019)


$27.187 billion (2018 est.)

Imports - partners

United Arab Emirates 27%, China 11%, Saudi Arabia 7%, United States 5%, Brazil 5%, Japan 5%, India 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars, iron ore, jewelry, gold, gas turbines (2019)

Exchange rates

Bahraini dinars (BHD) per US dollar -
0.376 (2021 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, February 22, 2023