Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



The huge delta region formed at the confluence of the Ganges and Brahmaputra River systems - now referred to as Bangladesh - was a loosely incorporated outpost of various empires for much of the first millennium A.D. The Bengali independence  movement, led by the Awami League (AL) and supported by India, won independence for Bangladesh in 1971.



total: 148,460 sq km
land: 130,170 sq km
water: 18,290 sq km


tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)

Natural resources

natural gas, arable land, timber, coal

People and Society


167,184,465 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Bengali at least 98.9%, other indigenous ethnic groups 1.1% (2011 est.)


Bangla 98.8% (official, also known as Bengali), other 1.2% (2011 est.)


Muslim 88.4%, other 11.6% (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.91% (2023 est.)


Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Dhaka

Executive branch

chief of state: President-Elect Mohammad Shahabuddin CHUPPI (since 13 April 2023); CHUPPI ran unopposed; he will be inaugurated on 24 April 2023
head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA Wazed (since 6 January 2009)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral House of the Nation or Jatiya Sangsad (350 seats; 300 members in single-seat territorial constituencies directly elected by simple majority vote; 50 members - reserved for women only - indirectly elected by the elected members by proportional representation vote using single transferable vote; all members serve 5-year terms)


Economic overview

one of the fastest growing economies; significant poverty reduction; COVID-19 adversely impacted female labor force participation and undermined previously stable financial conditions; looking to diversify beyond clothing industry; fairly low government debt; new taxation law struggling to increase government revenues

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.001 trillion (2021 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$5,900 (2021 est.)

Agricultural products

rice, potatoes, maize, sugar cane, milk, vegetables, onions, jute, mangoes/guavas, wheat


jute, cotton, garments, paper, leather, fertilizer, iron and steel, cement, petroleum products, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, tea, salt, sugar, edible oils, soap and detergent, fabricated metal products, electricity, natural gas


$49.386 billion (2021 est.)

Exports - partners

United States 15%, Germany 14%, United Kingdom 8%, Spain 7%, France 7% (2019)

Exports - commodities

clothing, knitwear, leather footwear (2019)


$85.303 billion (2021 est.)

Imports - partners

China 31%, India 15%, Singapore 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cotton, natural gas, scrap iron, wheat (2019)

Exchange rates

taka (BDT) per US dollar -
85.084 (2021 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, February 22, 2023