Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



The huge delta region at the confluence of the Ganges and Brahmaputra River systems - now referred to as Bangladesh - was a loosely incorporated outpost of various empires for much of the first millennium A.D. The Bengali independence movement, led by the Awami League (AL) and supported by India, won independence for Bangladesh in 1971.



total: 148,460 sq km
land: 130,170 sq km
water: 18,290 sq km


tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)

Natural resources

natural gas, arable land, timber, coal

People and Society


total: 168,697,184
male: 82,708,252
female: 85,988,932 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Bengali at least 99%, other indigenous ethnic groups 1% (2022 est.)


Bangla 98.8% (official, also known as Bengali), other 1.2% (2011 est.)


Muslim 91%, Hindu 8%, other 1% (2022 est.)

Population growth rate

0.89% (2024 est.)


Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Dhaka

Executive branch

chief of state: President Mohammad Shahabuddin CHUPPI (since 24 April 2023)
head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA Wazed (since 6 January 2009)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral House of the Nation or Jatiya Sangsad (350 seats; 300 members in single-seat territorial constituencies directly elected by simple majority vote; 50 members - reserved for women only - indirectly elected by the House of the Nation membership by proportional representation vote using single transferable vote method; all members serve 5-year terms)


Economic overview

one of the fastest growing emerging market economies; strong economic rebound following COVID-19; significant poverty reduction; exports dominated by textile industry; weakened exports and remittances resulted in declining foreign exchange reserves and 2022 IMF loan request

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.072 trillion (2022 est.)
$1.001 trillion (2021 est.)
$936.113 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$6,300 (2022 est.)
$5,900 (2021 est.)
$5,600 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

rice, milk, potatoes, maize, sugarcane, onions, vegetables, jute, mangoes/guavas, tropical fruits (2022)


cotton, textiles and clothing, jute, tea, paper, cement, fertilizer, sugar, light engineering 


$60.138 billion (2022 est.)
$49.291 billion (2021 est.)
$38.476 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

US 18%, Germany 16%, UK 8%, Spain 7%, Poland 6% (2022)

Exports - commodities

garments, footwear, fabric, textiles, jute yarn (2022)


$93.815 billion (2022 est.)
$85.299 billion (2021 est.)
$56.776 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 32%, India 17%, Singapore 6%, Malaysia 5%, Indonesia 5% (2022)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cotton fabric, cotton, fabric, fertilizers (2022)

Exchange rates

taka (BDT) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
91.745 (2022 est.)
85.084 (2021 est.)
84.871 (2020 est.)
84.454 (2019 est.)
83.466 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Thursday, June 13, 2024