Bangladesh

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

The huge delta region formed at the confluence of the Ganges and Brahmaputra River systems - now referred to as Bangladesh - was a loosely incorporated outpost of various empires for much of the first millennium A.D. The Bengali independence  movement, led by the Awami League (AL) and supported by India, won independence for Bangladesh in 1971.

Geography

Area

total: 148,460 sq km

land: 130,170 sq km

water: 18,290 sq km

Climate

tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)

Natural resources

natural gas, arable land, timber, coal

People and Society

Population

165,650,475 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Bengali at least 98%, other indigenous ethnic groups 1.1% (2011 est.)

Languages

Bangla 98.8% (official, also known as Bengali), other 1.2% (2011 est.)

Religions

Muslim 88.4%, other 11.6% (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.93% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Dhaka

Executive branch

chief of state: President Abdul HAMID (since 24 April 2013); note - Abdul HAMID served as acting president following the death of Zillur RAHMAN in March 2013; HAMID was subsequently indirectly elected by the National Parliament and sworn in 24 April 2013

head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA Wazed (since 6 January 2009)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral House of the Nation or Jatiya Sangsad (350 seats; 300 members in single-seat territorial constituencies directly elected by simple majority vote; 50 members - reserved for women only - indirectly elected by the elected members by proportional representation vote using single transferable vote; all members serve 5-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

one of the fastest growing economies; significant poverty reduction; COVID-19 adversely impacted female labor force participation and undermined previously stable financial conditions; looking to diversify beyond clothing industry; fairly low government debt; new taxation law struggling to increase government revenues

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$793.49 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$4,800 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

rice, potatoes, maize, sugar cane, milk, vegetables, onions, jute, mangoes/guavas, wheat

Industries

jute, cotton, garments, paper, leather, fertilizer, iron and steel, cement, petroleum products, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, tea, salt, sugar, edible oils, soap and detergent, fabricated metal products, electricity, natural gas

Exports

$38.78 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

United States 15%, Germany 14%, United Kingdom 8%, Spain 7%, France 7% (2019)

Exports - commodities

clothing, knitwear, leather footwear (2019)

Imports

$57.26 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 31%, India 15%, Singapore 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cotton, natural gas, scrap iron, wheat (2019)


Page last updated: Wednesday, May 11, 2022