Botswana

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name at independence in 1966. More than five decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most stable economies in Africa.

Geography

Area

total: 581,730 sq km

land: 566,730 sq km

water: 15,000 sq km

Climate

semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Natural resources

diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver

People and Society

Population

2,384,246 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and people of European ancestry 7%

Languages

Setswana 77.3%, Sekalanga 7.4%, Shekgalagadi 3.4%, English (official) 2.8%, Zezuru/Shona 2%, Sesarwa 1.7%, Sembukushu 1.6%, Ndebele 1%, other 2.8% (2011 est.)

Religions

Christian 79.1%, Badimo 4.1%, other 1.4% (includes Baha'i, Hindu, Muslim, Rastafarian), none 15.2%, unspecified 0.3% (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

1.4% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Gaborone

Executive branch

chief of state: President Mokgweetse Eric MASISI (since 1 April 2018); Vice President Slumber TSOGWANE (since 4 April 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Mokgweetse Eric MASISI (since 1 April 2018); Vice President Slumber TSOGWANE (since 4 April 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament consists of the National Assembly (63 seats; 57 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 4 nominated by the president and indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the rest of the National Assembly, and 2 ex-officio members - the president and attorney general; elected members serve 5-year terms); note - the House of Chiefs (Ntlo ya Dikgosi), an advisory body to the National Assembly, consists of 35 members - 8 hereditary chiefs from Botswana's principal tribes, 22 indirectly elected by the chiefs, and 5 appointed by the president; the House of Chiefs consults on issues including powers of chiefs, customary courts, customary law, tribal property, and constitutional amendments

Economy

Economic overview

good economic governance and financial management; diamond-driven growth model declining; rapid poverty reductions; high unemployment, particularly among youth; COVID-19 sharply contracted the economy and recovery is slow; public sector wages have posed fiscal challenges

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$37.72 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$16,000 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, roots/tubers, vegetables, sorghum, beef, game meat, watermelons, cabbages, goat milk, onions

Industries

diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver; beef processing; textiles

Exports

$6.16 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

India 21%, Belgium 19%, United Arab Emirates 19%, South Africa 9%, Israel 7%, Hong Kong 6%, Singapore 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

diamonds, insulated wiring, gold, beef, carbonates (2019)

Imports

$7.44 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

South Africa 58%, Namibia 9%, Canada 7% (2019)

Imports - commodities

diamonds, refined petroleum, cars, delivery trucks, electricity (2019)


Page last updated: Wednesday, May 11, 2022