Bulgaria

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first Bulgarian state. Northern Bulgaria attained autonomy in 1878 and all of Bulgaria became independent from the Ottoman Empire in 1908. Bulgaria fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946. Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its first multiparty election since World War II.

Geography

Area

total: 110,879 sq km

land: 108,489 sq km

water: 2,390 sq km

Climate

temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Natural resources

bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land

People and Society

Population

6,873,253 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Bulgarian 76.9%, Turkish 8%, Romani 4.4%, other 0.7% (including Russian, Armenian, and Vlach), other (unknown) 10% (2011 est.)

Languages

Bulgarian (official) 76.8%, Turkish 8.2%, Romani 3.8%, other 0.7%, unspecified 10.5% (2011 est.)

Religions

Eastern Orthodox 59.4%, Muslim 7.8%, other (including Catholic, Protestant, Armenian Apostolic Orthodox, and Jewish) 1.7%, none 3.7%, unspecified 27.4% (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.67% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Sofia

Executive branch

chief of state: President Rumen RADEV (since 22 January 2017); Vice President Iliana IOTOVA (since 22 January 2017)

head of government: Prime Minister Kiril PETKOV (since 13 December 2021)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sabranie (240 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

upper-middle-income EU economy; improving living standards and very robust economic growth; coal-based infrastructure; legacy structural vulnerabilities and widespread corruption; increasing Russian economic relations, particularly through energy trade

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$155.06 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$22,400 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, maize, sunflower seed, milk, barley, rapeseed, potatoes, grapes, tomatoes, watermelons

Industries

electricity, gas, water; food, beverages, tobacco; machinery and equipment, automotive parts, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel; outsourcing centers

Exports

$39.27 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 16%, Romania 8%, Italy 7%, Turkey 7%, Greece 6% (2019)

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, packaged medicines, copper, wheat, electricity (2019)

Imports

$38.07 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Germany 11%, Russia 9%, Italy 7%, Romania 7%, Turkey 7% (2019)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, copper, cars, packaged medicines, refined petroleum (2019)


Page last updated: Wednesday, Jun 15, 2022