Bulgaria

Country Summary

2023 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Northern Bulgaria attained autonomy from the Ottoman Empire in 1878, and all of Bulgaria became independent in 1908. Bulgaria fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946. Communist domination ended in 1990, and Bulgaria joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.

Geography

Area

total: 110,879 sq km
land: 108,489 sq km
water: 2,390 sq km

Climate

temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Natural resources

bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land

People and Society

Population

total: 6,782,659
male: 3,303,491
female: 3,479,168 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Bulgarian 78.5%, Turkish 7.8%, Roma 4.1%, other 1.2%, unspecified 9.4% (2021 est.)

Languages

Bulgarian (official) 77.3%, Turkish 7.9%, Romani 3.5%, other 1%, unspecified 10.4% (2021 est.)

Religions

Christian 64.7%, Muslim 9.8%, other 0.1%, none 4.7%, unspecified 20.7% (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.66% (2024 est.)

Government

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Sofia

Executive branch

chief of state: President Rumen RADEV (since 22 January 2017)
head of government: Caretaker Prime Minister Dimitar GLAVCHEV (since 9 April 2024)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sabranie (240 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by open-list, proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

upper-middle-income EU economy; currency pegged to the euro with accession pending; joined Schengen area as of March 2024; global events and internal political turmoil triggered export slump and stalled reforms; EU structural funds contributing to investment recovery; skilled labor shortage driven by emigration and aging population

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$174.307 billion (2022 est.)
$167.722 billion (2021 est.)
$155.786 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$27,000 (2022 est.)
$24,400 (2021 est.)
$22,500 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, maize, sunflower seeds, milk, barley, rapeseed, potatoes, grapes, tomatoes, chicken (2022)

Industries

electricity, gas, water; food, beverages, tobacco; machinery and equipment, automotive parts, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel; outsourcing centers

Exports

$60.712 billion (2022 est.)
$51.49 billion (2021 est.)
$39.541 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 13%, Romania 13%, Italy 7%, Turkey 6%, Greece 6% (2022)

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, natural gas, garments, wheat, refined copper (2022)

Imports

$60.252 billion (2022 est.)
$50.048 billion (2021 est.)
$38.197 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Germany 10%, Russia 10%, Turkey 9%, Romania 7%, Greece 6% (2022)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, natural gas, copper ore, cars, packaged medicine (2022)

Exchange rates

leva (BGN) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
1.86 (2022 est.)
1.654 (2021 est.)
1.716 (2020 est.)
1.747 (2019 est.)
1.657 (2018 est.)


Page last updated: Wednesday, July 10, 2024