Burkina Faso

Country Summary

Introduction

Background

Burkina Faso achieved independence from France in 1960. Repeated military coups have been the norm for much of the country's history. Terrorism, recurring drought, food insecurity, and poverty are among Burkina Faso's ongoing problems.

Geography

Area

total: 274,200 sq km
land: 273,800 sq km
water: 400 sq km

Climate

three climate zones including a hot tropical savanna with a short rainy season in the southern half, a tropical hot semi-arid steppe climate typical of the Sahel region in the northern half, and small area of hot desert in the very north of the country bordering the Sahara Desert


Natural resources

gold, manganese, zinc, limestone, marble, phosphates, pumice, salt

People and Society

Population

22,489,126 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Mossi 52%, Fulani (Peuhl) 8.4%, Gurma 7%, Bobo 4.9%, Gurunsi 4.6%, Senufo 4.5%, Bissa 3.7%, Lobi 2.4%, Dagara 2.4%, Tuareg/Bella 1.9%, Dyula 0.8%, unspecified/no answer 0.3%, other 7.2% (2010 est.)

Languages

Mossi 52.9%, Fula 7.8%, Gourmantche 6.8%, Dyula 5.7%, Bissa 3.3%, Gurunsi 3.2%, French (official) 2.2%, Bwamu 2%, Dagara 2%, San 1.7%, Marka 1.6%, Bobo 1.5%, Senufo 1.5%, Lobi 1.2%, other 6.6% (2019 est.)

Religions

Muslim 63.8%, Roman Catholic 20.1%, Animiste 9%, Protestant 6.2%, other 0.2%, none 0.7% (2019 est.)

Population growth rate

2.46% (2023 est.)

Government

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Ouagadougou

Executive branch

chief of state: transitional President Capt. Ibrahim TRAORE (since 30 September 2022); note - on 30 September 2022, a military junta, led by TRAORE, took power and ousted Transition President Lt. Col. Paul-Henri Sandaogo DAMIBA and took over as head of the Patriotic Movement for Safeguard and Restoration
head of government: Prime Minister Joachim KYLEM DE TAMBELA (since 21 October 2022); note - transitional President TRAORE appointed KYLEM DE TAMBELA Prime Minister on 21 October 2022; the position had been vacant since 30 September 2022 when the military ousted former Prime Minister Albert OUEDRAOGO

Legislative branch

description: prior to the 2022 coups and adhoc suspension of laws and constitutional provisions, unicameral National Assembly (127 seats; 111 members directly elected in 13 multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote and 26 members elected in a nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); 71-member Transitional Legislative Assembly (ALT) appointed by the military junta in 2022 indefinitely replaced the National Assembly

Economy

Economic overview

highly agrarian, low-income economy; limited natural resources; widespread poverty; terrorism disrupting potential economic activity; improving trade balance via increases in gold exports; economy inflating after prior deflation; growing public debt but still manageable

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$48.949 billion (2022 est.)
$48.093 billion (2021 est.)
$44.973 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$2,200 (2022 est.)
$2,200 (2021 est.)
$2,100 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

sorghum, maize, millet, cotton, cow peas, sugar cane, groundnuts, rice, sesame seed, vegetables

Industries

cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold

Exports

$6.234 billion (2021 est.)
$5.356 billion (2020 est.)
$4.468 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

Switzerland 59%, India 21% (2019)

Exports - commodities

gold, cotton, zinc, cashews, sesame seeds (2021)

Imports

$5.835 billion (2021 est.)
$4.779 billion (2020 est.)
$5.023 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

Cote d'Ivoire 15%, China 9%, Ghana 8%, France 8%, India 6%, United States 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, delivery trucks, packaged medicines, electricity, aircraft (2019)

Exchange rates

Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
623.76 (2022 est.)
554.531 (2021 est.)
575.586 (2020 est.)
585.911 (2019 est.)
555.446 (2018 est.)


Page last updated: Wednesday, April 10, 2024