Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



Burma was a province of British India until 1937 and then a self-governing colony until independence in 1948.  Military governments have generally led the country since.  Recent years have seen a series of reforms leading to a substantial opening of the long-isolated country.



total: 676,578 sq km
land: 653,508 sq km
water: 23,070 sq km


tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)

Natural resources

petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas, hydropower, arable land

People and Society


57,970,293 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Burman (Bamar) 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Indian 2%, Mon 2%, other 5%


Burmese (official)


Buddhist 87.9%, Christian 6.2%, Muslim 4.3%, Animist 0.8%, Hindu 0.5%, other 0.2%, none 0.1% (2014 est.)

Population growth rate

0.75% (2023 est.)


Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Rangoon (aka Yangon, continues to be recognized as the primary Burmese capital by the US Government); Nay Pyi Taw is the administrative capital

Executive branch

chief of state: Prime Minister, State Administration Council (SAC) Chair, Sr. Gen. MIN AUNG HLAING (since 1 August 2021);note - the military took over the government on 1 February 2021 and declared a state of emergency
head of government: Prime Minister, State Administration Council (SAC) Chair, Sr. Gen. MIN AUNG HLAING (since 1 August 2021)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Assembly of the Union or Pyidaungsu consists of:
House of Nationalities or Amyotha Hluttaw, (224 seats; 168 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed and 56 appointed by the military; members serve 5-year terms)
House of Representatives or Pyithu Hluttaw, (440 seats, currently 433; 330 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 110 appointed by the military; members serve 5-year terms); note - on 1 February 2021, the military dissolved the Assembly of the Union; the State Administration Council (SAC) governs in place of the Assembly of the Union


Economic overview

prior to COVID-19 and the February 2021 military coup, massive declines in poverty, rapid economic growth, and improving social welfare; underdevelopment, climate change, and unequal investment threaten progress and sustainability planning; since coup, foreign assistance has ceased from most funding sources

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$216.948 billion (2021 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$4,000 (2021 est.)

Agricultural products

rice, sugar cane, beans, vegetables, milk, maize, poultry, groundnuts, fruit, plantains


agricultural processing; wood and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; cement, construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer; oil and natural gas; garments; jade and gems


$17.523 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

China 24%, Thailand 24%, Japan 7%, Germany 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

natural gas, clothing products, rice, copper, dried legumes (2019)


$17.356 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

China 43%, Thailand 15%, Singapore 12%, Indonesia 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, fabrics, motorcycles, packaged medicines (2019)

Exchange rates

kyats (MMK) per US dollar -
1,381.619 (2020 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, February 22, 2023