Canada

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867, while retaining ties to the British crown. Canada aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.

Geography

Area

total: 9,984,670 sq km

land: 9,093,507 sq km

water: 891,163 sq km

Climate

varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Natural resources

bauxite, iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, uranium, rare earth elements, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower

People and Society

Population

38,232,593 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Canadian 32.3%, English 18.3%, Scottish 13.9%, French 13.6%, Irish 13.4%, German 9.6%, Chinese 5.1%, Italian 4.6%, North American Indian 4.4%, East Indian 4%, Ukrainian 3.9%, other 47.7% (2016 est.)

Languages

English (official) 58.7%, French (official) 22%, Punjabi 1.4%, Italian 1.3%, Spanish 1.3%, German 1.3%, Cantonese 1.2%, Tagalog 1.2%, Arabic 1.1%, other 10.5% (2011 est.)

Religions

Catholic 39% (includes Roman Catholic 38.8%, other Catholic .2%), Protestant 20.3% (includes United Church 6.1%, Anglican 5%, Baptist 1.9%, Lutheran 1.5%, Pentecostal 1.5%, Presbyterian 1.4%, other Protestant 2.9%), Orthodox 1.6%, other Christian 6.3%, Muslim 3.2%, Hindu 1.5%, Sikh 1.4%, Buddhist 1.1%, Jewish 1%, other 0.6%, none 23.9% (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

0.75% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

federal parliamentary democracy (Parliament of Canada) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm; federal and state authorities and responsibilities regulated in constitution

Capital

name: Ottawa

Executive branch

chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Mary SIMON (since 6 July 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Justin Pierre James TRUDEAU (Liberal Party) (since 4 November 2015)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of:
Senate or Senat (105 seats; members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and can serve until age 75)
House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (338 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote with terms up to 4 years)

Economy

Economic overview

one of the world’s largest economies; leading global financier and macroeconomic partner; largest US trading partner; key timber and oil and gas industries; Canada sends over half its development aid to the World Bank; key “blue economy” developer

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1,742,790,000,000 (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$45,900 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, rapeseed, maize, barley, milk, soybeans, potatoes, oats, peas, pork

Industries

transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum, natural gas

Exports

$477.31 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

US 73% (2019)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, cars and vehicle parts, gold, refined petroleum, natural gas (2019)

Imports

$510.29 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

US 57%, China 11%, Mexico 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, delivery trucks, crude petroleum, refined petroleum (2019)


Page last updated: Monday, May 16, 2022