Colombia

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged after the dissolution of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others are Ecuador and Venezuela). Colombia maintains relatively strong democratic institutions characterized by peaceful, transparent elections and the protection of civil liberties.

Geography

Area

total: 1,138,910 sq km

land: 1,038,700 sq km

water: 100,210 sq km

Climate

tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower

People and Society

Population

49,059,221 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Mestizo and White 87.6%, Afro-Colombian (includes Mulatto, Raizal, and Palenquero) 6.8%, Amerindian 4.3%, unspecified 1.4% (2018 est.)

Languages

Spanish (official) and 65 Amerindian languages

Religions

Christian 92.3% (predominantly Roman Catholic), other 1%, unspecified 6.7% (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.59% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Bogota

Executive branch

chief of state: President Gustavo Francisco PETRO Urrego (since 7 August 2022); Vice President Francia Elena MARQUEZ Mina (since 7 August 2022); the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Gustavo Francisco PETRO Urrego (since 7 August 2022); Vice President Francia Elena MARQUEZ Mina (since 7 August 2022)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of:
Senate or Senado (108 seats; 100 members elected in a single nationwide constituency by party-list proportional representation vote, 2 members elected in a special nationwide constituency for indigenous communities, 5 members of the Commons political party, formerly the People's Alternative Revolutionary Force (FARC), for 2 legislative terms only: 2018-2022 and 2022-2026 as per the 2016 peace accord, and 1 seat reserved for the runner-up presidential candidate in the recent election; all members serve 4-year terms)

Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (188 seats; 162 members elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote, 2 members elected in a special nationwide constituency for Afro-Colombians, 1 member elected by Colombians residing abroad, 1 member elected in a special nationwide constituency for the indigenous communities, 5 members of the Commons political party for two legislative terms only: 2018-2022 and 2022-2026 as per the 2016 peace accord, 16 seats for rural conflict victims for two legislative terms only: 2022-2026 and 2026-2030, and 1 seat reserved for the runner-up vice presidential candidate in the recent election; all members serve 4-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

prior to COVID-19, one of the most consistent growth economies; declining poverty; large stimulus package has mitigated economic fallout, but delayed key infrastructure investments; successful inflation management; sound flexible exchange rate regime; domestic economy suffers from lack of trade integration and infrastructure

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$683.94 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$13,400 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

sugar cane, milk, oil palm fruit, potatoes, rice, bananas, cassava leaves, plantains, poultry, maize

Industries

textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds

Exports

$39.14 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

United States 31%, China 11%, Panama 6%, Ecuador 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, coal, refined petroleum, coffee, gold (2019)

Imports

$51.56 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

United States 27%, China 20%, Mexico 7%, Brazil 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cars, broadcasting equipment, packaged medicines, corn (2019)

Exchange rates

Colombian pesos (COP) per US dollar -


Page last updated: Tuesday, August 09, 2022