Costa Rica

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Costa Rica proclaimed its independence from the United Provinces of central America in 1838.  Since the late 19th century, only two brief periods of violence have marred the country’s democratic development. Its standard of living is relatively high and land ownership is widespread.

Geography

Area

total: 51,100 sq km

land: 51,060 sq km

water: 40 sq km

Climate

tropical and subtropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to November); cooler in highlands

Natural resources

hydropower

People and Society

Population

5,204,411 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

White or Mestizo 83.6%, Mulatto 6.7%, Indigenous 2.4%, Black or African descent 1.1%, other 1.1%, none 2.9%, unspecified 2.2% (2011 est.)

Languages

Spanish (official), English

Religions

Roman Catholic 47.5%, Evangelical and Pentecostal 19.8%, Jehovah's Witness 1.4%, other Protestant 1.2%, other 3.1%, none 27% (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

1.01% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: San Jose

Executive branch

chief of state: President Rodrigo CHAVES Robles (since 8 May 2022); First Vice President Stephan BRUNNER Neibig (since 8 May 2022); Second Vice President Mary Denisse MUNIVE Angermuller (since 8 May 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Rodrigo CHAVES Robles (since 8 May 2022); First Vice President Stephan BRUNNER Neibig (since 8 May 2022); Second Vice President Mary Denisse MUNIVE Angermuller (since 8 May 2022)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (57 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies - corresponding to the country's 7 provinces - by closed party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

trade-based upper middle-income economy; green economy leader, having reversed deforestation; investing in blue economy infrastructure; declining poverty until hard impacts of COVID-19; lingering inequality and growing government debts have prompted a liquidity crisis

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$100.25 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$19,700 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

sugar cane, pineapples, bananas, milk, oil palm fruit, fruit, oranges, watermelons, cassava, rice

Industries

medical equipment, food processing, textiles and clothing, construction materials, fertilizer, plastic products

Exports

$21.2 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

United States 38%, Netherlands 6%, Belgium 5%, Guatemala 5%, Panama 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

medical instruments, bananas, tropical fruits, orthopedic appliances, food preparations (2019)

Imports

$19.39 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

United States 41%, China 13%, Mexico 7% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, cars, medical instruments, packaged medicines (2019)


Page last updated: Tuesday, May 17, 2022