Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



The native Amerindian population of Cuba began to decline after the European discovery of the island by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1492 and following its development as a Spanish colony during the next several centuries. Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959 and his authoritarian regime continues to rule.



total: 110,860 sq km
land: 109,820 sq km
water: 1,040 sq km


tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy season (May to October)

Natural resources

cobalt, nickel, iron ore, chromium, copper, salt, timber, silica, petroleum, arable land

People and Society


10,985,974 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

White 64.1%, Mulatto or mixed 26.6%, Black 9.3% (2012 est.)


Spanish (official)


Christian 58.9%, folk religion 17.6%, Buddhist <1%, Hindu <1%, Jewish <1%, Muslim <1%, other <1%, none 23.2% (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.19% (2023 est.)


Government type

communist state


name: Havana

Executive branch

chief of state: President Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez (since 19 April 2018); Vice President Salvador Antonio VALDES Mesa (since 10 October 2019)
head of government: Prime Minister Manuel MARRERO Cruz (since 21 December 2019); Deputy Prime Ministers Ramiro VALDES Menendez, Ines Maria CHAPMAN Waugh, Jorge Luis TAPIA Fonseca, Alejandro GIL Fernandez, Ricardo CABRISAS Ruiz (since 21 December 2019), and Jorge Luis PERDOMO DI-LELLA (since 20 April 2021)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly of People's Power or Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular (605 seats; (586 seats filled in 2021); members directly elected by absolute majority vote; members serve 5-year terms); note 1 - the National Candidature Commission submits a slate of approved candidates; to be elected, candidates must receive more than 50% of valid votes otherwise the seat remains vacant or the Council of State can declare another election; note 2 - in July 2019, the National Assembly passed a law which reduces the number of members from 605 to 474, effective with the 2023 general election


Economic overview

still largely state-run planned economy, although privatization increasing under new constitution; widespread protests due to lack of basic necessities and electricity; massive foreign investment increases recently; known tobacco exporter; unique oil-for-doctors relationship with Venezuela; widespread corruption

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$137 billion (2017 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$12,300 (2016 est.)

Agricultural products

sugar cane, cassava, vegetables, plantains, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, milk, pumpkins, mangoes/guavas, rice


petroleum, nickel, cobalt, pharmaceuticals, tobacco, construction, steel, cement, agricultural machinery, sugar


$2.63 billion (2017 est.)

Exports - partners

China 38%, Spain 11%, Netherlands 5%, Germany 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cigars, raw sugar, nickel products, rum, zinc (2019)


$11.06 billion (2017 est.)

Imports - partners

Spain 19%, China 15%, Italy 6%, Canada 5%, Russia 5%, United States 5%, Brazil 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

poultry meat, wheat, soybean products, corn, concentrated milk (2019)

Exchange rates

Cuban pesos (CUP) per US dollar -
1 (2017 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, February 22, 2023