Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



After World War I, the Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form Czechoslovakia, but then split in 1993 in the nonviolent “velvet divorce.” The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. The country added the short-form name Czechia in 2016.



total: 78,867 sq km
land: 77,247 sq km
water: 1,620 sq km


temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Natural resources

hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber, arable land

People and Society


total: 10,837,890
male: 5,335,737
female: 5,502,153 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Czech 57.3%, Moravian 3.4%, other 7.7%, unspecified 31.6% (2021 est.)


Czech (official) 88.4%, Slovak 1.5%, other 2.6%, unspecified 7.2%

note: includes only persons with one mother tongue (2021 est.)


Roman Catholic 7%, other believers belonging to a church or religious society 6% (includes Evangelical United Brethren Church and Czechoslovak Hussite Church), believers unaffiliated with a religious society 9.1%, none 47.8%, unspecified 30.1% (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

0.04% (2024 est.)


Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Prague

Executive branch

chief of state: President Petr PAVEL (since 9 March 2023)
head of government: Prime Minister Petr FIALA (since 17 December 2021)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:
Senate or Senat (81 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years)

Chamber of Deputies or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members directly elected in 14 multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote with a 5% threshold required to fill a seat; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

high-income, diversified EU economy; manufacturing-oriented exporter led by automotive industry; growth stalled by inflation and energy supply disruption; business-friendly regulatory frameworks; tight labor market with low unemployment; seeking reforms to support decarbonization and improve energy efficiency

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$438.119 billion (2022 est.)
$428.052 billion (2021 est.)
$413.365 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$41,100 (2022 est.)
$40,700 (2021 est.)
$38,600 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, sugar beets, milk, barley, rapeseed, potatoes, maize, pork, triticale, oats (2022)


motor vehicles, metallurgy, machinery and equipment, glass, armaments


$217.731 billion (2022 est.)
$205.626 billion (2021 est.)
$172.837 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 32%, Slovakia 8%, Poland 7%, France 5%, Austria 5% (2022)

Exports - commodities

cars, vehicle parts/accessories, broadcasting equipment, computers, plastic products (2022)


$218.002 billion (2022 est.)
$197.515 billion (2021 est.)
$156.129 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Germany 24%, China 13%, Poland 10%, Slovakia 6%, Russia 4% (2022)

Imports - commodities

broadcasting equipment, vehicle parts/accessories, natural gas, machine parts, plastic products (2022)

Exchange rates

koruny (CZK) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
23.357 (2022 est.)
21.678 (2021 est.)
23.21 (2020 est.)
22.932 (2019 est.)
21.73 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Tuesday, July 09, 2024