Dominican Republic

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



Spain and France colonized and divided the island of Hispaniola.  The western third became Haiti.  The remainder became the Dominican Republic in 1844. Dominicans voluntarily returned to the Spanish Empire, but two years later they launched a war that restored independence in 1865.



total: 48,670 sq km
land: 48,320 sq km
water: 350 sq km


tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation; seasonal variation in rainfall

Natural resources

nickel, bauxite, gold, silver, arable land

People and Society


10,790,744 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

mixed 70.4% (Mestizo/Indio 58%, Mulatto 12.4%), Black 15.8%, White 13.5%, other 0.3% (2014 est.)


Spanish (official)


Roman Catholic 44.3%, Evangelical 13%, Protestant 7.9%, Adventist 1.4%, other 1.8%, atheist 0.2%, none 29.4%, unspecified 2% (2018 est.)

Population growth rate

0.88% (2023 est.)


Government type

presidential republic


name: Santo Domingo

Executive branch

chief of state: President Luis Rodolfo ABINADER Corona (since 16 August 2020); Vice President Raquel PENA de Antuna (since 16 August 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Luis Rodolfo ABINADER Corona (since 16 August 2020); Vice President Raquel PENA de Antuna (since 16 August 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of:
Senate or Senado (32 seats; 26 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, and 6 members indirectly elected based upon province-wide party plurality votes for its candidates to the Chamber of Deputies; all members serve 4-year terms; note - in 2019, the Central Election Commission changed the electoral system for seats in26 constituencies to direct simple majority but retained indirect election for the remaining 6 constituencies; previously all 32 members were indirectly elected; the change had been challenged by the ruling and opposition parties)

House of Representatives or Camara de Diputados (190 seats; 178 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote using the D'Hondt method, 5 members in a nationwide constituency and 7 diaspora members directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

tourism, construction, mining, and telecommunications OECS economy; COVID-19 disrupted economic growth; major foreign direct investment and free-trade zones; developing local financial markets; improving debt management; declining poverty

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$207.082 billion (2021 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$18,600 (2021 est.)

Agricultural products

sugar cane, bananas, papayas, rice, plantains, milk, avocados, fruit, pineapples, coconuts


tourism, sugar processing, gold mining, textiles, cement, tobacco, electrical components, medical devices


$20.509 billion (2021 est.)

Exports - partners

United States 54%, Switzerland 8%, Canada 5%, India 5%, China 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

gold, medical instruments, cigars, low-voltage protection equipment, bananas (2019)


$28.541 billion (2021 est.)

Imports - partners

United States 50%, China 13% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cars, jewelry, natural gas, broadcasting equipment (2019)

Exchange rates

Dominican pesos (DOP) per US dollar -
57.221 (2021 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, February 22, 2023