El Salvador

Country Summary

2023 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and from the Central American Federation in 1839. A 12-year civil war was brought to a close in 1992 when the government and leftist rebels signed a treaty that provided for military and political reforms.

Geography

Area

total: 21,041 sq km
land: 20,721 sq km
water: 320 sq km

Climate

tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands

Natural resources

hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum, arable land

People and Society

Population

total: 6,628,702
male: 3,172,244
female: 3,456,458 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Mestizo 86.3%, White 12.7%, Indigenous 0.2% (includes Lenca, Kakawira, Nahua-Pipil), Black 0.1%, other 0.6% (2007 est.)

Languages

Spanish (official), Nawat (among some Indigenous)

Religions

Roman Catholic 43.9%, Protestant 39.6% (Evangelical - unspecified 38.2%, Evangelical - Methodist 1.3%, Evangelical - Baptist 0.1%), none 16.3%, unspecified 0.2% (2023 est.)

Population growth rate

0.34% (2024 est.)

Government

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: San Salvador

Executive branch

chief of state: President Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez (since 1 June 2019); Vice President Félix Augusto Antonio ULLOA Garay (since 1 June 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez (since 1 June 2019); Vice President Félix Augusto Antonio ULLOA Garay (since 1 June 2019)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (84 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies and a single nationwide constituency by open-list proportional representation vote to serve 3-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

growth-challenged Central American economy buttressed via remittances; dense labor force; fairly aggressive COVID-19 stimulus plan; new and lower banking reserve requirements; earthquake, tropical storm, and crime disruptions; widespread corruption

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$59.537 billion (2022 est.)
$58.028 billion (2021 est.)
$52.195 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$9,400 (2022 est.)
$9,200 (2021 est.)
$8,300 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

sugarcane, maize, milk, chicken, beans, sorghum, coconuts, oranges, eggs, yautia (2022)

Industries

food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals, fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals

Exports

$10.129 billion (2022 est.)
$8.33 billion (2021 est.)
$6.073 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

US 38%, Guatemala 16%, Honduras 16%, Nicaragua 7%, Costa Rica 4% (2022)

Exports - commodities

garments, plastic products, electrical capacitors, fabric, raw sugar (2022)

Imports

$18.07 billion (2022 est.)
$15.459 billion (2021 est.)
$10.398 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

US 30%, China 16%, Guatemala 12%, Mexico 8%, Honduras 6% (2022)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, garments, natural gas, plastic products, plastics (2022)


Page last updated: Thursday, June 13, 2024