Estonia

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940, it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Geography

Area

total: 45,228 sq km

land: 42,388 sq km

water: 2,840 sq km

Climate

maritime; wet, moderate winters, cool summers

Natural resources

oil shale, peat, rare earth elements, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud

People and Society

Population

1,211,524 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Estonian 68.7%, Russian 24.8%, Ukrainian 1.7%, Belarusian 1%, Finn 0.6%, other 1.6%, unspecified 1.6% (2011 est.)

Languages

Estonian (official) 68.5%, Russian 29.6%, Ukrainian 0.6%, other 1.2%, unspecified 0.1% (2011 est.)

Religions

Orthodox 16.2%, Lutheran 9.9%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 2.2%, other 0.9%, none 54.1%, unspecified 16.7% (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.71% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Tallinn

Executive branch

chief of state: President Alar KARIS (since 11 October 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Kaja KALLAS (since 26 January 2021)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by open- list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

advanced service-based EU and OECD economy; regional trade and telecommunications leader; recently rejected Baltic sea rail tunnel from Tallinn to Helsinki; flat income taxation; substantial welfare system; balanced budget culture; business-friendly climate

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$47.44 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$35,600 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, milk, barley, rapeseed, rye, oats, peas, potatoes, pork, triticale

Industries

food, engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textiles; information technology, telecommunications

Exports

$21.69 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Finland 13%, Sweden 9%, Latvia 8%, Russia 8%, United States 7%, Lithuania 6%, Germany 6% (2019)

Exports - commodities

broadcasting equipment, refined petroleum, coal tar oil, cars, prefabricated buildings (2019)

Imports

$21.73 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Russia 12%, Germany 10%, Finland 9%, Lithuania 7%, Latvia 7%, Sweden 6%, Poland 6%, China 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, coal tar oil, broadcasting equipment, packaged medicines (2019)


Page last updated: Wednesday, May 11, 2022