Country Summary



Gabon became independent from France in 1960. Despite constrained political conditions, Gabon's small population, abundant natural resources, and considerable foreign support have helped make it one of the more stable African countries.



total: 267,667 sq km
land: 257,667 sq km
water: 10,000 sq km


tropical; always hot, humid

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, diamond, niobium, manganese, uranium, gold, timber, iron ore, hydropower

People and Society


2,397,368 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Fang 23.5%, Shira-Punu'Vii 20.6%, Nzabi-Duma 11.2%, Mbede-Teke 5.6%, Myene 4.4%, Kota-Kele 4.3%, Okande-Tsogho 1.6%, other 12.6%, foreigner 16.2% (2021 est.)


French (official), Fang, Myene, Nzebi, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi


Protestant 46.4% (Revival Church 37%, other Protestant 9.4%), Roman Catholic 29.8%, other Christian 4%, Muslim 10.8%, traditional/animist 1.1%, other 0.9%, none 7% (2019-21 est.)

Population growth rate

2.39% (2023 est.)


Government type

presidential republic


name: Libreville

Executive branch

chief of state: Transitional President Gen. Brice OLIGUI Nguema (since 4 September 2023); note - on 30 August 2023, Gen. Brice OLIGUI Nguema led a military group called the Committee for the Transition and Restoration of Institutions in a coup in which President Ali BONGO Ondimba was arrested and detained, election results were canceled, and state institutions were dissolved; on 4 September 2023, Gen. OLIGUI was sworn in as transitional president; note- the military government announced on 13 November 2023 that presidential and legislative elections will be held in August 2025
head of government: Interim Prime Minister Raymond Ndong SIMA (since 8 September 2023)

Legislative branch


Transitional Parliament (formerly the bicameral Parliament) consists of:
Senate (70 seats; members appointed by Transitional president; member term NA)
National Assembly (98 seats; members appointed by the Transitional president; member term NA) 
note - all members represent legally recognized political parties or leading political figures, civil society, and defense and security forces


Economic overview

natural resource-rich, upper-middle-income, Central African economy; sparsely populated but high urbanization; young labor force; oil, manganese, and rubber exporter; foreign investment dependent; data integrity issue on poverty and income

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$32.34 billion (2021 est.)
$31.874 billion (2020 est.)
$32.471 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$13,800 (2021 est.)
$13,900 (2020 est.)
$14,500 (2019 est.)

Agricultural products

plantains, cassava, sugar cane, yams, taro, vegetables, maize, groundnuts, game meat, rubber


petroleum extraction and refining; manganese, gold; chemicals, ship repair, food and beverages, textiles, lumbering and plywood, cement


$10.8 billion (2019 est.)
$9.533 billion (2018 est.)
$9.145 billion (2017 est.)

Exports - partners

China 63%, Singapore 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, manganese, lumber, veneer sheeting, refined petroleum (2021)


$5.02 billion (2019 est.)
$4.722 billion (2018 est.)
$4.749 billion (2017 est.)

Imports - partners

France 22%, China 17%, Belgium 6%, United States 6%, United Arab Emirates 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

poultry meats, excavation machinery, packaged medicines, cars, rice (2019)

Exchange rates

Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
554.531 (2021 est.)
575.586 (2020 est.)
585.911 (2019 est.)
555.446 (2018 est.)
580.657 (2017 est.)

Page last updated: Tuesday, February 20, 2024