Georgia

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Georgia contained the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Kartli-Iberia. The area came under Roman influence in the first centuries A.D., and Christianity became the state religion in the 330s. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1921 and regained its independence when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991.

Geography

Area

total: 69,700 sq km

land: 69,700 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Climate

warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast

Natural resources

timber, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth

People and Society

Population

4,935,518 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Georgian 86.8%, Azeri 6.3%, Armenian 4.5%, other 2.3% (includes Russian, Ossetian, Yazidi, Ukrainian, Kist, Greek) (2014 est.)

Languages

Georgian (official) 87.6%, Azeri 6.2%, Armenian 3.9%, Russian 1.2%, other 1%; note - Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia (2014 est.)

Religions

Orthodox (official) 83.4%, Muslim 10.7%, Armenian Apostolic 2.9%, other 1.2% (includes Catholic, Jehovah's Witness, Yazidi, Protestant, Jewish), none 0.5%, unspecified/no answer 1.2% (2014 est.)

Population growth rate

0.03% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

semi-presidential republic

Capital

name: Tbilisi

Executive branch

chief of state: President Salome ZOURABICHVILI (since 16 December 2018)

head of government: Prime Minister Irakli GARIBASHVILI (since 22 February 2021)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Sakartvelos Parlamenti (150 seats statutory, 144 current; 120 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed, party-list proportional representation vote and 30 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by at least 50% majority vote, with a runoff if needed; no party earning less than 40% of total votes may claim a majority; members serve 4-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

COVID-19 crippled tourism, transportation, and construction sectors; rising unemployment, public debts and poverty; foreign investment and domestic bond issuance

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$52.33 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$14,100 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, grapes, maize, potatoes, wheat, watermelons, tomatoes, tangerines/mandarins, barley, apples

Industries

steel, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese, copper, gold), chemicals, wood products, wine

Exports

$5.94 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Russia 12%, Azerbaijan 12%, Armenia 9%, Bulgaria 8%, China 6%, Turkey 6%, Ukraine 6% (2019)

Exports - commodities

copper, cars, iron alloys, wine, packaged medicines (2019)

Imports

$8.94 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Turkey 17%, China 11%, Russia 9%, Azerbaijan 6%, United States 6%, Germany 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, copper, packaged medicines, natural gas (2019)


Page last updated: Wednesday, Jun 15, 2022