Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



Georgia contained the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Kartli-Iberia. The area came under Roman influence in the first centuries A.D., and Christianity became the state religion in the 330s. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1921 and regained its independence when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991.



total: 69,700 sq km
land: 69,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km


warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast

Natural resources

timber, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth

People and Society


4,936,390 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Georgian 86.8%, Azeri 6.3%, Armenian 4.5%, other 2.3% (includes Russian, Ossetian, Yazidi, Ukrainian, Kist, Greek) (2014 est.)


Georgian (official) 87.6%, Azeri 6.2%, Armenian 3.9%, Russian 1.2%, other 1%; note - Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia (2014 est.)


Orthodox (official) 83.4%, Muslim 10.7%, Armenian Apostolic 2.9%, other 1.2% (includes Catholic, Jehovah's Witness, Yazidi, Protestant, Jewish), none 0.5%, unspecified/no answer 1.2% (2014 est.)

Population growth rate

0.01% (2023 est.)


Government type

semi-presidential republic


name: Tbilisi

Executive branch

chief of state: President Salome ZOURABICHVILI (since 16 December 2018)
head of government: Prime Minister Irakli GARIBASHVILI (since 22 February 2021)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Sakartvelos Parlamenti (150 seats statutory, 144 current; 120 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed, party-list proportional representation vote and 30 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by at least 50% majority vote, with a runoff if needed; no party earning less than 40% of total votes may claim a majority; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

COVID-19 crippled tourism, transportation, and construction sectors; rising unemployment, public debts and poverty; foreign investment and domestic bond issuance

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$57.434 billion (2021 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$15,500 (2021 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, grapes, maize, potatoes, wheat, watermelons, tomatoes, tangerines/mandarins, barley, apples


steel, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese, copper, gold), chemicals, wood products, wine


$8.086 billion (2021 est.)

Exports - partners

Russia 12%, Azerbaijan 12%, Armenia 9%, Bulgaria 8%, China 6%, Turkey 6%, Ukraine 6% (2019)

Exports - commodities

copper, cars, iron alloys, wine, packaged medicines (2019)


$11.151 billion (2021 est.)

Imports - partners

Turkey 17%, China 11%, Russia 9%, Azerbaijan 6%, United States 6%, Germany 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, copper, packaged medicines, natural gas (2019)

Exchange rates

laris (GEL) per US dollar -
3.222 (2021 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, February 22, 2023