Country Summary



Georgia once contained the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Kartli-Iberia. It has been dominated by many powers, including its absorption into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1921, it regained its independence following the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. Georgia achieved EU candidate status in December 2023.



total: 69,700 sq km
land: 69,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km


warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast

Natural resources

timber, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth

People and Society


4,927,228 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Georgian 86.8%, Azeri 6.3%, Armenian 4.5%, other 2.3% (includes Russian, Ossetian, Yazidi, Ukrainian, Kist, Greek) (2014 est.)


Georgian (official) 87.6%, Azeri 6.2%, Armenian 3.9%, Russian 1.2%, other 1%; note - Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia (2014 est.)


Eastern Orthodox Christian (official) 83.4%, Muslim 10.7%, Armenian Apostolic Christian 2.9%, other 1.2% (includes Roman Catholic Christian, Jehovah's Witness, Yazidi, Protestant Christian, Jewish), none 0.5%, unspecified/no answer 1.2% (2014 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.57% (2023 est.)


Government type

semi-presidential republic


name: Tbilisi

Executive branch

chief of state: President Salome ZOURABICHVILI (since 16 December 2018)
head of government: Prime Minister Irakli KOBAKHIDZE (since 8 February 2024); note - Irakli GARIBASHVILI resigned on 29 January 2024 to prepare for general elections in October 2024

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Sakartvelos Parlamenti (150 seats statutory, 140 as of May 2023); 120 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed, party-list proportional representation vote and 30 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by at least 50% majority vote, with a runoff if needed; no party earning less than 40% of total votes may claim a majority; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

main economic activities include cultivation of agricultural products, such as grapes, citrus fruits, and hazelnuts; mining of manganese, copper, and gold; producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$63.403 billion (2022 est.)
$57.434 billion (2021 est.)
$51.993 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$17,100 (2022 est.)
$15,500 (2021 est.)
$14,000 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, grapes, maize, potatoes, wheat, watermelons, tomatoes, tangerines/mandarins, barley, apples


steel, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese, copper, gold), chemicals, wood products, wine


$13.24 billion (2022 est.)
$8.086 billion (2021 est.)
$5.927 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

China 13%, Russia 12%, Azerbaijan 11%, Turkey 7%, Ukraine 6% (2021)

Exports - commodities

copper, iron alloys, cars, wine, refined petroleum, nitrogen fertilizers, liquors (2021)


$15.665 billion (2022 est.)
$11.151 billion (2021 est.)
$8.967 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Turkey 17%, China 9%, Russia 9%, United States 7%, Azerbaijan 6% (2021)

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, copper, packaged medicines, natural gas (2019)

Exchange rates

laris (GEL) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
2.916 (2022 est.)
3.222 (2021 est.)
3.109 (2020 est.)
2.818 (2019 est.)
2.534 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Tuesday, April 09, 2024