Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



Greenland, the world's largest island, is about 80% ice-capped. Vikings reached the island in the 10th century from Iceland; Danish colonization began in the 18th century, and Greenland became part of the Danish Realm in 1953.



total: 2,166,086 sq km
land: 2,166,086 sq km


arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters

Natural resources

coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, molybdenum, diamonds, gold, platinum, niobium, tantalite, uranium, fish, seals, whales, hydropower, possible oil and gas

People and Society


total: 57,751
male: 29,843
female: 27,908 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Greenlandic 88.1%, Danish 7.1%, Filipino 1.6%, other Nordic peoples 0.9%, and other 2.3% (2024 est.)


Greenlandic (West Greenlandic or Kalaallisut is the official language; Tunumiisut (East Greenlandic) and Inuktun (Polar Inuit Greenlandic) are two other native languages, considered dialects of Kalaallisut, spoken by approximately 10% of Greenlanders), Danish, English


Evangelical Lutheran, traditional Inuit spiritual beliefs

Population growth rate

-0.05% (2024 est.)


Government type

parliamentary democracy (Parliament of Greenland or Inatsisartut)


name: Nuuk

Executive branch

chief of state: King FREDERIK X of Denmark (since 14 January 2024), represented by High Commissioner Julie Praest WILCHE (since May 2022) (2024)
head of government: Premier Mute B. EGEDE (since 23 April 2021)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Inatsisartut (31 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote - by the d'Hondt method - to serve 4-year terms)
Greenland elects 2 members to the Danish Parliament to serve 4-year terms


Economic overview

large self-governing Danish territorial economy; preferential EU market access; high-income economy; dependent on Danish financial support, even for whaling and sealing industries; growing tourism; hydropower-fueled but environmentally fragile economy

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$2.413 billion (2015 est.)
$2.24 billion (2014 est.)
$2.203 billion (2013 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$41,800 (2015 est.)
$38,800 (2014 est.)
$38,500 (2013 est.)

Agricultural products

sheep, cattle, reindeer, fish, shellfish


fish processing (mainly shrimp and Greenland halibut), anorthosite and ruby mining, handicrafts, hides and skins, small shipyards


$1.147 billion (2021 est.)
$1.108 billion (2020 est.)
$1.23 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

Denmark 49%, China 24%, UK 6%, Japan 5%, Taiwan 3% (2022)

Exports - commodities

fish, shellfish, processed crustaceans, precious stones, animal products (2022)


$1.609 billion (2021 est.)
$1.441 billion (2020 est.)
$1.533 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

Denmark 56%, Sweden 22%, France 10%, Iceland 3%, Canada 3% (2022)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, aircraft, garments, construction vehicles, plastic products (2022)

Exchange rates

Danish kroner (DKK) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
6.287 (2021 est.)
6.542 (2020 est.)
6.669 (2019 est.)
6.315 (2018 est.)
6.603 (2017 est.)

Page last updated: Thursday, May 30, 2024