Country Summary



Spain ceded Guam to the US in 1898. Captured by the Japanese in 1941, it was retaken by the US three years later. The military installations on the island are some of the most strategically important US bases in the Pacific, and they constitute the island’s most important source of income and economic stability.



total: 544 sq km
land: 544 sq km
water: 0 sq km


tropical marine; generally warm and humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season (January to June), rainy season (July to December); little seasonal temperature variation

Natural resources

aquatic wildlife (supporting tourism), fishing (largely undeveloped)

People and Society


169,330 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Chamorro 37.3%, Filipino 26.3%, White 7.1%, Chuukese 7%, Korean 2.2%, other Pacific Islander 2%, other Asian 2%, Chinese 1.6%, Palauan 1.6%, Japanese 1.5%, Pohnpeian 1.4%, mixed 9.4%, other 0.6% (2010 est.)


English 43.6%, Filipino 21.2%, Chamorro 17.8%, other Pacific island languages 10%, Asian languages 6.3%, other 1.1% (2010 est.)


Christian (predominantly Roman Catholic) 94.2%, folk religions 1.5%, Buddhist 1.1%, other 1.6%, unaffiliated 1.7% (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.13% (2023 est.)


Government type

unincorporated organized territory of the US with local self-government; republican form of territorial government with separate executive, legislative, and judicial branches


name: Hagatna (Agana)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Joseph R. BIDEN Jr. (since 20 January 2021); Vice President Kamala D. HARRIS (since 20 January 2021)
head of government: Governor Lourdes LEON GUERRERO (since 7 January 2019); Lieutenant Governor Josh TENORIO (since 7 January 2019)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Legislature of Guam or Liheslaturan Guahan (15 seats; members elected in a single countrywide constituency by simple majority vote to serve 2-year terms)
Guam directly elects 1 member by simple majority vote to serve a 2-year term as the delegate to the US House of Representatives; note - the delegate can vote when serving on a committee and when the House meets as the Committee of the Whole House, but not when legislation is submitted for a “full floor” House vote


Economic overview

small Pacific island US territorial economy; upper income, tourism-based economy; hard-hit by COVID-19 disruptions; relaunched many industries via vaccination tourism; domestic economy relies on multiple military bases; environmentally fragile economy

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$5.793 billion (2016 est.)
$5.697 billion (2015 est.)
$5.531 billion (2014 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$35,600 (2016 est.)
$35,200 (2015 est.)
$34,400 (2014 est.)

Agricultural products

fruits, copra, vegetables; eggs, pork, poultry, beef


national defense, tourism, construction, transshipment services, concrete products, printing and publishing, food processing, textiles


$1.124 billion (2016 est.)
$1.046 billion (2015 est.)

Exports - partners

South Korea 31%, Hong Kong 27%, Taiwan 18%, Philippines 7% (2019)

Exports - commodities

scrap iron, scrap copper, boring/sinking machinery, leather handbags, rubber, scrap aluminum (2021)


$2.964 billion (2016 est.)
$3.054 billion (2015 est.)

Imports - partners

Singapore 33%, Japan 21%, South Korea 18%, Hong Kong 9%, Malaysia 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, trunks/cases, cars, insulated wire, broadcasting equipment (2019)

Page last updated: Wednesday, December 06, 2023