Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



The Indus Valley civilization, one of the world's oldest, flourished during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. and extended into northwestern India. By the 19th century, Great Britain had become the dominant political power on the subcontinent, and India was seen as the "Jewel in the Crown" of the British Empire. Years of nonviolent resistance to British rule eventually resulted in Indian independence in 1947.



total: 3,287,263 sq km
land: 2,973,193 sq km
water: 314,070 sq km


varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north

Natural resources

coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), antimony, iron ore, lead, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land

People and Society


total: 1,409,128,296
male: 725,784,825
female: 683,343,471 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, and other 3% (2000)


Hindi 43.6%, Bengali 8%, Marathi 6.9%, Telugu 6.7%, Tamil 5.7%, Gujarati 4.6%, Urdu 4.2%, Kannada 3.6%, Odia 3.1%, Malayalam 2.9%, Punjabi 2.7%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.1%, other 5.6%; note - English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; there are 22 other officially recognized languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Odia, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language (2011 est.)


Hindu 79.8%, Muslim 14.2%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.7%, other and unspecified 2% (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

0.72% (2024 est.)


Government type

federal parliamentary republic


name: New Delhi

Executive branch

chief of state: President Droupadi MURMU (since 25 July 2022); Vice President Jagdeep DHANKHAR (since 11 August 2022)
head of government: Prime Minister Narendra MODI (since 26 May 2014)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of:
Council of States or Rajya Sabha (245 seats; 233 members indirectly elected by state and territorial assemblies by proportional representation vote and 12 members appointed by the president; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years at various dates)
House of the People or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 2 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)


Economic overview

largest South Asian economy; still informal domestic economies; COVID-19 reversed both economic growth and poverty reduction; credit access weaknesses contributing to lower private consumption and inflation; new social and infrastructure equity efforts

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$10.079 trillion (2022 est.)
$9.399 trillion (2021 est.)
$8.619 trillion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$7,100 (2022 est.)
$6,700 (2021 est.)
$6,200 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

sugarcane, rice, milk, wheat, bison milk, potatoes, vegetables, bananas, maize, onions (2022)


textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software, pharmaceuticals


$767.643 billion (2022 est.)
$643.08 billion (2021 est.)
$484.691 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

US 18%, UAE 7%, Netherlands 4%, China 3%, Bangladesh 3% (2022)

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, diamonds, packaged medicine, garments, jewelry (2022)


$902.304 billion (2022 est.)
$717.119 billion (2021 est.)
$493.033 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 15%, UAE 7%, US 7%, Saudi Arabia 6%, Russia 6% (2022)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, coal, gold, natural gas, diamonds (2022)

Exchange rates

Indian rupees (INR) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
78.604 (2022 est.)
73.918 (2021 est.)
74.1 (2020 est.)
70.42 (2019 est.)
68.389 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, May 22, 2024