Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



Celtic tribes arrived in Ireland between 600 and 150 B.C., followed by Norsemen in the late 8th century. Anglo-Norman invasions began in the 12th century. The modern Irish state broke from the UK in 1921, and Ireland declared itself a republic in 1949.



total: 70,273 sq km
land: 68,883 sq km
water: 1,390 sq km


temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time

Natural resources

natural gas, peat, copper, lead, zinc, silver, barite, gypsum, limestone, dolomite

People and Society


total: 5,233,461
male: 2,590,542
female: 2,642,919 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Irish 76.6%, Irish travelers 0.6%, other White 9.9%, Asian 3.3%, Black 1.5%, other (includes Arab, Roma, and persons of mixed backgrounds) 2%, unspecified 2.6% (2022 est.)


English (official, the language generally used), Irish (Gaelic or Gaeilge) (official, spoken by approximately 37.7% of the population as of 2022; mainly spoken in areas along Ireland's western coast known as gaeltachtai, which are officially recognized regions where Irish is the predominant language)


Roman Catholic 69.2% (includes lapsed), Protestant 3.7% (Church of Ireland/England/Anglican/Episcopalian 2.5%, other Protestant 1.2%), Orthodox 2%, other Christian 0.9%, Muslim 1.6%, other 1.4%, agnostic/atheist 0.1%, none 14.5%, unspecified 6.7% (2022 est.)

Population growth rate

0.93% (2024 est.)


Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Dublin

Executive branch

chief of state: President Michael D. HIGGINS (since 11 November 2011)
head of government: Taoiseach (Prime Minister) Simon HARRIS (since 9 April 2024); note - Taoiseach Leo VARADKAR resigned from the ruling party on 20 March 2024 but remained as the caretaker taoiseach until a successor was appointed

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Oireachtas consists of:
Senate or Seanad Eireann (60 seats; 49 members indirectly elected from 5 vocational panels of nominees by an electoral college, 11 appointed by the prime minister
House of Representatives or Dail Eireann (160 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; all Parliament members serve 5-year terms)


Economic overview

strong, export-based EU economy; multinational-business-friendly environment known for resilience, even amid COVID-19 disruptions; real wage growth beyond other OECD members; high livings standards; strong social equity and cohesion; aging labor force

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$576.527 billion (2022 est.)
$526.831 billion (2021 est.)
$457.615 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$112,400 (2022 est.)
$104,700 (2021 est.)
$91,800 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, barley, wheat, beef, potatoes, pork, oats, chicken, rapeseed, lamb/mutton (2022)


pharmaceuticals, chemicals, computer hardware and software, food products, beverages and brewing; medical devices


$729.135 billion (2022 est.)
$685.814 billion (2021 est.)
$571.051 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

US 30%, Germany 12%, UK 8%, Belgium 7%, China 7% (2022)

Exports - commodities

vaccines, packaged medicine, nitrogen compounds, integrated circuits, scented mixtures (2022)


$516.084 billion (2022 est.)
$479.284 billion (2021 est.)
$488.823 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

UK 26%, US 16%, Germany 9%, China 6%, Netherlands 6% (2022)

Imports - commodities

aircraft, nitrogen compounds, refined petroleum, natural gas, vaccines (2022)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
0.95 (2022 est.)
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, May 15, 2024