Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



The State of Israel was declared in 1948, after Britain withdrew from its mandate of Palestine. Israel was admitted as a member of the UN in 1949 and saw rapid population growth, primarily due to migration from Europe and the Middle East. The Israeli economy has undergone a dramatic transformation in the last 25 years, led by cutting-edge, high-tech sectors.



total: 21,937 sq km
land: 21,497 sq km
water: 440 sq km


temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas

Natural resources

timber, potash, copper ore, natural gas, phosphate rock, magnesium bromide, clays, sand

People and Society


9,043,387 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Jewish 74% (of which Israel-born 78.7%, Europe/America/Oceania-born 14.8%, Africa-born 4.2%, Asia-born 2.3%), Arab 21.1%, other 4.9% (2020 est.)


Hebrew (official), Arabic (special status under Israeli law), English (most commonly used foreign language)


Jewish 74%, Muslim 18%, Christian 1.9%, Druze 1.6%, other 4.5% (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

1.43% (2023 est.)


Government type

parliamentary democracy


name: Jerusalem; note - the US recognized Jerusalem as Israel’s capital in December 2017 without taking a position on the specific boundaries of Israeli sovereignty

Executive branch

chief of state: President Isaac HERZOG (since 7 July 2021)
head of government: Prime Minister Benjamin NETANYAHU (since 29 December 2022)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Knesset (120 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed-list proportional representation vote, with a 3.25% vote threshold to gain representation; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

high-income, technology- and industrial-based economy; recent debt spikes; high inequality and poverty disparities persist; significant tariff and regulatory burdens, especially in agriculture; hard-hit by COVID-19; quantitative easing in effect

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$393.861 billion (2021 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$42,100 (2021 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, potatoes, poultry, tomatoes, carrots, turnips, tangerines/mandarins, green chillies/peppers, eggs, vegetables


high-technology products (including aviation, communications, computer-aided design and manufactures, medical electronics, fiber optics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, pharmaceuticals, construction, metal products, chemical products, plastics, cut diamonds, textiles, footwear


$143.884 billion (2021 est.)

Exports - partners

United States 26%, China 9%, United Kingdom 7% (2020)

Exports - commodities

diamonds, packaged medicines, medical instruments, integrated circuits, refined petroleum (2019)


$124.578 billion (2021 est.)

Imports - partners

United States 12%, China 11%, Germany 7.5%, Switzerland 7%, Turkey 6% (2020)

Imports - commodities

diamonds, cars, crude petroleum, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment (2019)

Exchange rates

new Israeli shekels (ILS) per US dollar -
3.23 (2021 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, February 22, 2023