Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



The State of Israel was declared in 1948, after Britain withdrew from its mandate of Palestine. Israel joined the UN in 1949 and saw rapid population growth, primarily due to migration from Europe and the Middle East. The Israeli economy has undergone a dramatic transformation in the last 25 years, led by cutting-edge high-tech sectors.



total: 21,937 sq km
land: 21,497 sq km
water: 440 sq km


temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas

Natural resources

timber, potash, copper ore, natural gas, phosphate rock, magnesium bromide, clays, sand

People and Society


total: 9,402,617
male: 4,731,275
female: 4,671,342 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Jewish 73.5% (of which Israel-born 79.7%, Europe/America/Oceania-born 14.3%, Africa-born 3.9%, Asia-born 2.1%), Arab 21.1%, other 5.4% (2022 est.)


Hebrew (official), Arabic (special status under Israeli law), English (most commonly used foreign language)


Jewish 73.5%, Muslim 18.1%, Christian 1.9%, Druze 1.6%, other 4.9% (2022 est.)

Population growth rate

1.58% (2024 est.)


Government type

parliamentary democracy


name: Jerusalem; note - the US recognized Jerusalem as Israel’s capital in December 2017 without taking a position on the specific boundaries of Israeli sovereignty

Executive branch

chief of state: President Isaac HERZOG (since 7 July 2021)
head of government: Prime Minister Benyamin NETANYAHU (since 29 December 2022)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Knesset (120 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed party-list proportional representation vote, with a 3.25% vote threshold to gain representation; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

high-income, technology- and industrial-based economy; economic contraction and fiscal deficits resulting from war in Gaza; labor force stabilizing following military reservist mobilization; high-tech industry remains resilient while construction and tourism among hardest-hit sectors

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$424.289 billion (2022 est.)
$397.152 billion (2021 est.)
$365.661 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$44,400 (2022 est.)
$42,400 (2021 est.)
$39,700 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, chicken, potatoes, tomatoes, avocados, bananas, grapefruits, eggs, tangerines/mandarins, carrots/turnips (2022)


high-technology products (including aviation, communications, computer-aided design and manufactures, medical electronics, fiber optics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, pharmaceuticals, construction, metal products, chemical products, plastics, cut diamonds, textiles, footwear


$166.227 billion (2022 est.)
$143.505 billion (2021 est.)
$113.687 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

US 25%, China 7%, West Bank/Gaza Strip 6%, Ireland 5%, UK 4% (2022)

Exports - commodities

diamonds, integrated circuits, refined petroleum, fertilizers, medical instruments (2022)


$150.804 billion (2022 est.)
$125.948 billion (2021 est.)
$96.886 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 14%, US 11%, Turkey 7%, Germany 6%, India 5% (2022)

Imports - commodities

diamonds, cars, crude petroleum, refined petroleum, garments (2022)

Exchange rates

new Israeli shekels (ILS) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
3.36 (2022 est.)
3.23 (2021 est.)
3.442 (2020 est.)
3.565 (2019 est.)
3.591 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, May 22, 2024