Italy

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Italy became a nation-state in 1861 when the regional states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united. Italy is a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC) and its subsequent successors the EC and the EU. At the forefront of European economic and political unification, Italy joined the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999.

Geography

Area

total: 301,340 sq km

land: 294,140 sq km

water: 7,200 sq km

Climate

predominantly Mediterranean; alpine in far north; hot, dry in south

Natural resources

coal, antimony, mercury, zinc, potash, marble, barite, asbestos, pumice, fluorspar, feldspar, pyrite (sulfur), natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, arable land

People and Society

Population

61,095,551 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south)

Languages

Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German-speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)

Religions

Christian 80.8% (overwhelmingly Roman Catholic with very small groups of Jehovah's Witnesses and Protestants), Muslim 4.9%, unaffiliated 13.4%, other 0.9% (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.13% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Rome

Executive branch

chief of state: President Sergio MATTARELLA (since 3 February 2015)

head of government: Prime Minister Mario DRAGHI (since 13 February 2021); the prime minister's official title is President of the Council of Ministers; note - Prime Minister Giuseppe CONTE resigned on 26 January 2021

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlamento consists of:
Senate or Senato della Repubblica (320 seats; 116 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 193 members in multi-seat constituencies and 6 members in multi-seat constituencies abroad directly elected by party-list proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms and 5 ex-officio members appointed by the president of the Republic to serve for life)
Chamber of Deputies or Camera dei Deputati (630 seats; 629 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member from Valle d'Aosta elected by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

core EU economy; strong services, manufacturing, and tourism sectors; hard hit by COVID-19 disruptions but starting to recover; large EU exporter but data skews due to inflated port entry valuation; corruption somewhat stymies foreign direct investment

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$2,322,140,000,000 (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$39,000 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, grapes, wheat, maize, tomatoes, apples, olives, sugar beet, oranges, rice

Industries

tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics

Exports

$558.26 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 12%, France 11%, United States 10%, United Kingdom 5%, Spain 5%, Switzerland 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

packaged medicines, cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, valves, trunks/cases, wine (2019)

Imports

$486.35 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Germany 16%, France 9%, China 7%, Spain 5%, Netherlands 5%, Belgium 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, cars, packaged medicines, natural gas, refined petroleum (2019)


Page last updated: Thursday, May 12, 2022