Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



Japan opened its ports in 1854 and began to intensively modernize and industrialize. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Japan became a regional power. After its defeat in World War II, Japan recovered to become an economic power and a US ally. The emperor retains his throne as a symbol of national unity, but elected politicians hold the decision-making power.



total: 377,915 sq km
land: 364,485 sq km
water: 13,430 sq km


varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north

Natural resources

negligible mineral resources, fish; note - with virtually no natural energy resources, Japan is almost totally dependent on imported sources of energy

People and Society


total: 123,201,945
male: 59,875,269
female: 63,326,676 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Japanese 97.5%, Chinese 0.6%, Vietnam 0.4%, South Korean 0.3%, other 1.2% (includes Filipino, Brazilian, Nepalese, Indonesian, American, and Taiwanese) (2022 est.)




Shintoism 48.6%, Buddhism 46.4%, Christianity 1.1%, other 4% (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.43% (2024 est.)


Government type

parliamentary constitutional monarchy


name: Tokyo

Executive branch

chief of state: Emperor NARUHITO (since 1 May 2019); note - succeeded his father who abdicated on 30 April 2019
head of government: Prime Minister Fumio KISHIDA (since 4 October 2021)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Diet or Kokkai consists of:
House of Councilors or Sangi-in (248 seats; 148 members directly elected in multi-seat districts by simple majority vote and 100 directly elected in a single national constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms with half the membership renewed every 3 years)

House of Representatives or Shuugi-in (465 seats; 289 members directly elected in single-seat districts by simple majority vote and 176 directly elected in multi-seat districts by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve up to 4-year terms)


Economic overview

fourth-largest economy; trade-oriented and highly diversified; high public debt levels; real wage declines in inflationary environment; sustained near-zero central bank rates coupled with depreciation of yen; strong rebound in tourism

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$5.21 trillion (2022 est.)
$5.157 trillion (2021 est.)
$5.049 trillion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$41,600 (2022 est.)
$41,000 (2021 est.)
$40,000 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

rice, milk, sugar beets, vegetables, eggs, chicken, potatoes, cabbages, sugarcane, pork (2022)


motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals, textiles, processed foods


$921.212 billion (2022 est.)
$920.639 billion (2021 est.)
$794.291 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

US 19%, China 19%, South Korea 7%, Taiwan 7%, Thailand 4% (2022)

Exports - commodities

cars, machinery, integrated circuits, vehicle parts/accessories, refined petroleum (2022)


$1.08 trillion (2022 est.)
$942.45 billion (2021 est.)
$801.889 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 22%, Australia 10%, US 10%, UAE 5%, Saudi Arabia 4% (2022)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, natural gas, coal, integrated circuits, garments (2022)

Exchange rates

yen (JPY) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
131.498 (2022 est.)
109.754 (2021 est.)
106.775 (2020 est.)
109.01 (2019 est.)
110.423 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Thursday, June 13, 2024