Country Summary



Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes with additional Persian cultural influences, migrated to the region in the 15th century. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th and 19th centuries, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1925. The country gained independence in 1991.



total: 2,724,900 sq km
land: 2,699,700 sq km
water: 25,200 sq km


continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid

Natural resources

major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium

People and Society


19,543,464 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Kazakh (Qazaq) 69.6%, Russian 17.9%, Uzbek 3.3%, Uyghur 1.5%, Ukrainian 1.3%,  Tatar 1%, other 5.3% (2022 est.)


Kazakh (official, Qazaq) 83.1% (understand spoken language) and trilingual (Kazakh, Russian, English) 22.3% (2017 est.); Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic communication") 94.4% (understand spoken language) (2009 est.)


Muslim 70.2%, Christian 26.2% (mainly Russian Orthodox), other 0.2%, atheist 2.8%, unspecified 0.5% (2009 est.)

Population growth rate

0.9% (2023 est.)


Government type

presidential republic


name: Astana

Executive branch

chief of state: President Kasym-Zhomart TOKAYEV (since 20 March 2019)
head of government: Prime Minister Olzhas BEKTENOV (since 6 February 2024); note - Alikhan SMAILOV resigned on 5 February 2024

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan consists of:
Senate (50 seats); 40 members indirectly elected by 2-round majority vote by the oblast-level assemblies and 10 members appointed by decree of the president; members serve 6-year terms, with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years)
Mazhilis (98 seats; 69 members directly elected in a single national constituency by party list proportional representation vote (5% minimum threshold to gain seats) and 29 directly elected in single-seat constituencies to serve 5-year terms


Economic overview

oil and gas giant, with growing international investment; domestic economy hit hard by COVID-19 disruptions; reforming civil society and improving business confidence; legacy state controls and Russian influence inhibit growth and autonomy

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$512.002 billion (2022 est.)
$496.126 billion (2021 est.)
$475.672 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$26,100 (2022 est.)
$26,100 (2021 est.)
$25,400 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, milk, potatoes, barley, watermelons, melons, linseed, onions, maize, sunflower seed


oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, uranium, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials


$93.581 billion (2022 est.)
$71.726 billion (2021 est.)
$49.273 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

China 13%, Italy 12%, Russia 10%, Netherlands 7%, France 6%, South Korea 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, gold, copper, iron alloys, natural gas (2021)


$60.147 billion (2022 est.)
$49.597 billion (2021 est.)
$46.502 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Russia 34%, China 24% (2019)

Imports - commodities

packaged medicines, natural gas, cars, broadcasting equipment, aircraft (2019)

Exchange rates

tenge (KZT) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
460.165 (2022 est.)
425.908 (2021 est.)
412.953 (2020 est.)
382.747 (2019 est.)
344.706 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Tuesday, April 16, 2024