Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic nomadic tribes, migrated to the region in the 15th century. Russia conquered the area in the 18th and 19th centuries, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1925. The country gained independence in 1991.



total : 2,724,900 sq km
land: 2,699,700 sq km
water: 25,200 sq km


continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid

Natural resources

major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium

People and Society


total: 20,260,006

Ethnic groups

Kazakh 71%, Russian 14.9%, Uzbek 3.3%, Ukrainian 1.9%, Uyghurs 1.5%, German 1.1%, Tatar 1.1%, other 4.9%, unspecified 0.3% (2023 est.)


Kazakh (official, Qazaq) 80.1% (understand spoken language), Russian (understand spoken language) 83.7%, English (understand spoken language) 35.1% (2021 est.)


Muslim 69.3%, Christian 17.2% (Orthodox 17%, other 0.2%), Buddhism 0.1%, other 0.1%, non-believers 2.3%, unspecified 11% (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

0.86% (2024 est.)


Government type

presidential republic


name: Astana

Executive branch

chief of state: President Kasym-Zhomart TOKAYEV (since 20 March 2019)
head of government: Prime Minister Olzhas BEKTENOV (since 6 February 2024)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan consists of:
Senate (50 seats); 40 members indirectly elected by 2-round majority vote by the oblast-level assemblies and 10 members appointed by decree of the president; members serve 6-year terms, with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years)
Mazhilis (98 seats; 69 members directly elected in a single national constituency by party list proportional representation vote (5% minimum threshold to gain seats) and 29 directly elected in single-seat constituencies to serve 5-year terms


Economic overview

oil and gas giant, with growing international investment; domestic economy hit hard by COVID-19 disruptions; reforming civil society and improving business confidence; legacy state controls and Russian influence inhibit growth and autonomy

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$705.52 billion (2023 est.)
$671.285 billion (2022 est.)
$650.47 billion (2021 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$35,500 (2023 est.)
$34,200 (2022 est.)
$33,900 (2021 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, milk, potatoes, barley, watermelons, sunflower seeds, cantaloupes/melons, onions, maize, linseed (2022)


oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, uranium, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials


$90.167 billion (2023 est.)
$93.598 billion (2022 est.)
$71.726 billion (2021 est.)

Exports - partners

China 14%, Italy 13%, Russia 9%, UK 8%, Netherlands 6% (2022)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, gold, refined copper, iron alloys, radioactive chemicals (2022)


$71.811 billion (2023 est.)
$60.151 billion (2022 est.)
$49.597 billion (2021 est.)

Imports - partners

Russia 29%, China 28%, Germany 5%, South Korea 4%, Turkey 3% (2022)

Imports - commodities

garments, cars, broadcasting equipment, plastic products, packaged medicine (2022)

Exchange rates

tenge (KZT) per US dollar -

Page last updated: Wednesday, July 24, 2024