Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



Kuwait gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1961. Iraq attacked and overran Kuwait in 1990, but a US-led UN coalition liberated the country in 1991. The AL-SABAH family has ruled since 1991 and has reestablished an elected legislature that has become increasingly assertive.



total: 17,818 sq km
land: 17,818 sq km
water: 0 sq km


dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters

Natural resources

petroleum, fish, shrimp, natural gas

People and Society


total: 3,138,355
male: 1,810,542
female: 1,327,813 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Kuwaiti 30.4%, other Arab 27.4%, Asian 40.3%, African 1%, other 0.9% (includes European, North American, South American, and Australian) (2018 est.)


Arabic (official), English widely spoken


Muslim (official) 74.6%, Christian 18.2%, other and unspecified 7.2% (2013 est.)

Population growth rate

1.1% (2024 est.)


Government type

constitutional monarchy (emirate)


name: Kuwait City

Executive branch

chief of state: Amir Sheikh MISHAL al-Ahmad al-Sabah (since 16 December 2023); he succeeded his brother, Amir Sheikh NAWAF al-Ahmad al-Jabir al-Sabah following his death on 16 December 2023
head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh MOHAMMAD Sabah Al Salim Al Sabah (since 4 January 2024); First Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Interior Sheikh TALAL al-Khalid Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah (since 16 October 2022); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of State for Cabinet Affairs Khalid al-FADIL (since 9 April 2022); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Oil Bader Hamed Yusef Al-Mula (since 16 October 2022)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-Umma (65 seats; 50 members directly elected from 5 multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 15 ex-officio members (cabinet ministers) appointed by the amir; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

small, high-income, oil-based Middle East economy; renewable energy proponent; regional finance and investment leader; maintains oldest sovereign wealth fund; emerging space and tourism industries; mid-way through 25-year development program

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$210.884 billion (2022 est.)
$193.719 billion (2021 est.)
$191.522 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$49,400 (2022 est.)
$45,600 (2021 est.)
$43,900 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

tomatoes, dates, cucumbers/gherkins, eggs, milk, chicken, lamb/mutton, vegetables, potatoes, eggplants (2022)


petroleum, petrochemicals, cement, shipbuilding and repair, water desalination, food processing, construction materials


$110.923 billion (2022 est.)
$77.121 billion (2021 est.)
$47.416 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

China 24%, India 15%, South Korea 11%, Japan 9%, Taiwan 7% (2022)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, refined petroleum, hydrocarbons, natural gas, acyclic alcohols (2022)


$55.909 billion (2022 est.)
$48.954 billion (2021 est.)
$44.015 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

UAE 20%, China 16%, Saudi Arabia 9%, US 7%, Japan 4% (2022)

Imports - commodities

cars, gold, jewelry, garments, packaged medicine (2022)

Exchange rates

Kuwaiti dinars (KD) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
0.306 (2022 est.)
0.302 (2021 est.)
0.306 (2020 est.)
0.304 (2019 est.)
0.302 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, May 22, 2024