Mali

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Mali is named for the Mali Empire that at its peak in the 14th century covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France. In the late 19th century, France seized control of Mali. The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali.

Geography

Area

total: 1,240,192 sq km

land: 1,220,190 sq km

water: 20,002 sq km

Climate

subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)

Natural resources

gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower, note, bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited

People and Society

Population

20,741,769 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Bambara 33.3%, Fulani (Peuhl) 13.3%, Sarakole/Soninke/Marka 9.8%, Senufo/Manianka 9.6%, Malinke 8.8%, Dogon 8.7%, Sonrai 5.9%, Bobo 2.1%, Tuareg/Bella 1.7%, other Malian 6%, from members of Economic Community of West Africa 0.4%, other 0.3% (2018 est.)

Languages

French (official), Bambara 46.3%, Peuhl/Foulfoulbe 9.4%, Dogon 7.2%, Maraka/Soninke 6.4%, Malinke 5.6%, Sonrhai/Djerma 5.6%, Minianka 4.3%, Tamacheq 3.5%, Senoufo 2.6%, Bobo 2.1%, other 6.3%, unspecified 0.7% (2009 est.)

Religions

Muslim 93.9%, Christian 2.8%, animist 0.7%, none 2.5% (2018 est.)

Population growth rate

2.95% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

semi-presidential republic

Capital

name: Bamako

Executive branch

chief of state: Transition President Assimi GOITA (since 7 June 2021)

note: an August 2020 coup d'etat deposed President Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA; on 21 September 2020, a group of 17 electors chosen by the Malian military junta, known as the National Committee for the Salvation of the People (CNSP) and led by Colonel Assimi GOITA, selected Bah NDAW as transition president; GOITA served as vice president of the transitional government which was inaugurated on 25 September 2020; Vice President GOITA seized power on 25 May 2021; NDAW resigned on 26 May 2021

head of government: Transition Prime Minister Choguel MAIGA (appointed by Transitional President Assimi GOITA on 7 June 2021)

note: former transition Prime Minister Moctar OUANE was arrested and detained by the military on 24 May 2021 and resigned on 26 May 2021

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members directly elected in single and multi-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; 13 seats reserved for citizens living abroad; members serve 5-year terms)

note - the National Assembly was dissolved on 18 August 2020 following a military coup and the resignation of President KEITA; note - the transition government created a National Transition Council (CNT) whose 121 members were selected by then-transition vice president Assimi GOITA; the CNT acts as the transition government's legislative body with Malick DIAW serving as the president; in February 2022 the CNT increased the number of seats to 147 but the additional seats have not yet been filled

Economy

Economic overview

low-income Saharan economy; recession due to COVID-19 and political instability; extreme poverty; environmentally fragile; high public debt; agricultural and gold exporter; terrorism and warfare are common

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$44.89 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$2,200 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

maize, rice, millet, sorghum, mangoes/guavas, cotton, watermelons, green onions/shallots, okra, sugar cane

Industries

food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining

Exports

$4.18 billion (2018 est.)

Exports - partners

United Arab Emirates 66%, Switzerland 26% (2019)

Exports - commodities

gold, cotton, sesame seeds, lumber, vegetable oils/residues (2019)

Imports

$6.08 billion (2018 est.)

Imports - partners

Senegal 23%, Cote d'Ivoire 15%, China 11%, France 9% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, clothing and apparel, packaged medicines, cement, broadcasting equipment (2019)


Page last updated: Wednesday, May 18, 2022