Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



The site of several advanced Amerindian civilizations - including the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec - Mexico was conquered and colonized by Spain in the early 16th century. Administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain for three centuries, it achieved independence early in the 19th century.



total: 1,964,375 sq km

land: 1,943,945 sq km

water: 20,430 sq km


varies from tropical to desert

Natural resources

petroleum, silver, antimony, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber

People and Society


129,150,971 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 62%, predominantly Amerindian 21%, Amerindian 7%, other 10% (mostly European) (2012 est.)


Spanish only 93.8%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.4%, indigenous only 0.6%, unspecified 0.2%; note - indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages (2020 est.)


Roman Catholic 78%, Protestant/evangelical Christian 11.2%, other 0.002%, unaffiliated (includes atheism) 10.6% (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.51% (2022 est.)


Government type

federal presidential republic


name: Mexico City (Ciudad de Mexico)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (since 1 December 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (since 1 December 2018)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Union consists of:
Senate or Camara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 32 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 200 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 3-year terms)


Economic overview

one of the world’s largest economies; USMCA buttresses its manufacturing sector; has underperformed growth targets for three decades; COVID-19 disrupted export-based economy; corruption and cartel-based violence undermine economic stability

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$2,306,320,000,000 (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$17,900 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

sugarcane, maize, milk, oranges, sorghum, tomatoes, poultry, wheat, green chillies/peppers, eggs


food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism


$434.93 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

United States 75% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, computers, delivery trucks, crude petroleum, insulated wiring (2019)


$410.66 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

United States 54%, China 14% (2019)

Imports - commodities

integrated circuits, refined petroleum, cars and vehicle parts, office machinery/parts, telephones (2019)

Exchange rates

Mexican pesos (MXN) per US dollar -

Page last updated: Tuesday, July 05, 2022