Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



The site of several advanced Amerindian civilizations - including the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec - Mexico was conquered and colonized by Spain in the early 16th century. Administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain for three centuries, it achieved independence early in the 19th century.



total: 1,964,375 sq km
land: 1,943,945 sq km
water: 20,430 sq km


varies from tropical to desert

Natural resources

petroleum, silver, antimony, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber

People and Society


129,875,529 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 62%, predominantly Amerindian 21%, Amerindian 7%, other 10% (mostly European) (2012 est.)


Spanish only 93.8%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.4%, indigenous only 0.6%, unspecified 0.2%; note - indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages (2020 est.)


Roman Catholic 78%, Protestant/evangelical Christian 11.2%, other 0.002%, unaffiliated (includes atheism) 10.6% (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.61% (2023 est.)


Government type

federal presidential republic


name: Mexico City (Ciudad de Mexico)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Andrés Manuel LÓPEZ OBRADOR (since 1 December 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Andrés Manuel LÓPEZ OBRADOR (since 1 December 2018)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Unión consists of:
Senate or Cámara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 32 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or Cámara de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 200 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 3-year terms)


Economic overview

one of the world’s largest economies; USMCA buttresses its manufacturing sector; has underperformed growth targets for three decades; COVID-19 disrupted export-based economy; corruption and cartel-based violence undermine economic stability

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$2.418 trillion (2021 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$19,100 (2021 est.)

Agricultural products

sugarcane, maize, milk, oranges, sorghum, tomatoes, poultry, wheat, green chillies/peppers, eggs


food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism


$522.235 billion (2021 est.)

Exports - partners

United States 75% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, computers, delivery trucks, crude petroleum, insulated wiring (2019)


$544.752 billion (2021 est.)

Imports - partners

United States 54%, China 14% (2019)

Imports - commodities

integrated circuits, refined petroleum, cars and vehicle parts, office machinery/parts, telephones (2019)

Exchange rates

Mexican pesos (MXN) per US dollar -
20.272 (2021 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, February 22, 2023